102 Electrical Energy Innovations
Gary C. Vesperman
Advisor to Sky Train Corporation
588 Lake Huron Lane
Boulder City, NV 89005-1018
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Hydro-Magnetic Dynamo 2
Blacklight Power’s Hydrino Generator 5
Focus Fusion 5
Thorium PowerPack 5
IPMS Thorium-227 Electricity Generator 6
Twelve Thorium Energy Patents 6
Micro-Fusion Reactor Employing Stable High-Density Plasma Electron Spiral Toroids in Neutron Tube 6
Davis Tidal Turbine 12
POWR/MASTR Industrial Engine 13
Hydrosonic Pump 13
Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge Reactor 14
Electronically Shaded Photo-Voltaic Glass 15
Hutchison Self-Charged Battery 16
Testatika Free Energy Machine 16
Volcheck: Engine Powered by Gas with Unusual Expansion Properties 16
GeoExchange Heat Pump 17
High-Temperature Incinerator 17
High-Density Charge Clusters Technology 17
Cold Fusion Reactor with Thermal-to-Electric Conversion 18
Hybrid Cold Fusion Hydrogen Reactor 18
Gas-Phase Catalytic Fusion 18
Fiber-Based Cold Fusion Power Cell 18
Light-Polarizing Photovoltaic Film 18
Femto Diode Photovoltaic Glass Sheet 19
Quantum High-Density Storage or Retrieval Device 20
Buried Contact Multijunction Thin Film Solar Cell 20
Solar Hydrogen Producer 21
Super Steam Technology 21
Double-Exposure Flat Plate Solar Collector 21
Brown Nuclear Battery 21
Water Engine 22
Converter of Zero-Point Electromagnetic Radiation to Electrical Energy 22
Water-Fueled Internal Combustion Engine with Garrett Electrolytic Carburetor 23
Muller Motor/Generator 23
Maxwell Technologies Ultra-Capacitor 24
Power Technology Battery 24
NiMH Batteries; Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries 24
Edwin Baldwin’s Super-Capacitor 26
Yasunori Takahashi’s Ultra-Capacitor 26
Borrowdale Motor/Generator 26
90+ MPG Carburetor; Atomic Isotope Generator 26
WIN Zero Point Electrical Energy Converter 26
Conversion of Aluminum Internal Combustion Engines to Magnetic Motor 27
Gravito Magnetic Device 27
Casimer Effect Self-Charging Energy Cell 28
Switched Reluctance Motor 28
Perm-Mag Motor 29
Other Over-Unity Magnetic Motors 29
Protium H+ Stoichiometric Hydrogen Gas Generator 29
Closed-Loop Phase-Change Gas System 29
Environmental Heat Engines 30
Closed-Cycle Freon/Rotary Turbine 30
Multi-Chambered Rotary Compression Engine 31
Conical Vortex Heat Exchange Engine 31
Clem Over-Unity Vegetable Oil Engine 31
Thin-Film Electrolytic Cells 31
Ceramic Electrodynamic Wafer 32
Super-Conductive Manganite Substrates 32
Thin Film Power Generating Disks 32
Casimer-Layered Electrodynamic Generator 32
Self-Recharging Gel Cells 33
Self-Recharging Capacitive Discharge Thermal Generator 33
Amplified Ionization Filtration Technologies 33
Induction Coil Coating Increases Generator Output by One-Third 33
Wind Turbine Conversion 33
Wireless Power and Free Energy from Ambient 34
N-1 Homopolar Generator 34
Method and Apparatus for Splitting Water Molecules 34
Motionless Electromagnetic Generator 35
Richardson Fuel-Less Electrical Generator 36
Richardson Blade-Less Tesla-Type Steam Turbine 36
Hendershot Magnetic Motor 36
Motive Power Generating Device 37
IPMS-Kiev and Arzamas-16: Super Magnets 37
Searl Effect Generator 38
Noble Gas Plasma Engine 39
Magnatron – Light-Activated Cold Fusion Magnetic Motor 39
IPMS Energy Storage/Battery Device 43
IPMS: High-Temperature Gas Plasma Detonator 54
IPMS-Chernovitsky: Super Ceramics 56
IPMS: Micro-Channels and Filters 57
IPMS: Thermal Electric Cooling Devices 59
Advanced Solar Photo-Voltaic Crystal Lattice Cells 59
Lantz Water and Power System 62
Liquid Electricity Engine 62
Hawking’s Generator of Cold Electricity 62
Radiant Energy Pump/Electricity Generator 63
Trombly-Kahn Closed-Path Homopolar Generator 66
Trombly-Farnsworth Solid-State Oscillating Electromagnetic System 66
Electrino Fusion Power Reactor 71
High-Voltage Injection of Rain Water into Cold Fog 79
Capacitive step-down Transformer 79
Remediating Nuclear Waste with Electron-Captured Protons with Significant Net Energy Gain 80
Plasma Biomass Gasification 80
Thin-Film Electrolytic Cells 81
Orgone Energy Motor 81
Joe’s Orgone Energy Cell 82
Moe-Joe Orgone Energy Cell 85
Ukrainian Capacitor-Like Battery 87
Torsion Field Energy Applications 88
Our world uses a BILLION barrels of oil every 12 days. As of 2005 only a puny 30 million barrels of new oil are typically found in the same time period. The global depletion rate runs at least 5% a year – perhaps at a shockingly higher rate as some major sources of oil are in serious decline. Oil production in Britain fell the steepest of any country in 2004, with production in the once fabled North Sea falling by 10% (230,000 barrels per day). Production in Alaska’s Prudhoe Bay has fallen 75% since its peak in 1987. Iraq’s oil production is still only half of what it was before the war. Mexico’s production is declining so quickly it will have to start importing oil within the next 10 years. Even oil giant Saudi Arabia has begun underwater oil drilling.
Gasoline and diesel fuel are still needed for mining, preparing, and transporting coal to a high percentage of electricity generators. Food production, processing, packaging, and distribution are also heavily dependent on gasoline and diesel fuel. Running out of petroleum could likely result in mass starvation as well as leave millions of people literally in the dark and back to horses and buggies. Replacement of petroleum with alternative energy supplies might even be just plain too late.
Abundant new energy supplies are thus desperately needed that do not have the disadvantages of hot fusion, coal, solar, petroleum, gas, uranium, falling water, and wind. Gary Vesperman’s list of candidate new sources of energy includes the hydrosonic pump, pulsed abnormal glow discharge reactor, Davis tidal turbine, high-density plasma electron spiral toroids in neutron tube, GeoExchange heat pump, hydrino battery, metallurgical separation of hydrogen from water, high-density charge clusters device, hybrid cold fusion hydrogen reactor, electronically shaded photo-voltaic glass, Joe’s energy cell, Clem over-unity vegetable-oil engine, super-steam technology, gas-phase catalytic fusion, wind-solar hemisphere power station, LUMELOID™ light-polarizing photovoltaic thin film, LEPCON™ femto diode photovoltaic glass sheet, solid-state Quantum High-Energy Density Storage or Retrieval (QUENSOR™) device, Tesla turbine combuster, buried contact multijunction thin film solar cell, fiber-based cold fusion power cell, solar hydrogen producer, Hawkings’ generator of cold electricity, double-exposure flat-plate solar collector, low-temperature phase-change engine, Muller’s magnetic motor/generator, hyper-cap E-converter, aluminum-water fueled hydrogen producer, converter of zero-point electromagnetic radiation energy to electrical energy, water-fueled internal combustion engine with Garrett electrolytic carburetor, noble gas plasma engine, metamatter for revolutionary energy sources and rocket engines, three versions of Casimer-effect self-charging battery, motionless electromagnetic generator, Q-cell, WIN zero point electrical energy converter, vortical energy, conversion of aluminum internal combustion engine to magnetic motor, motor/generator with electro-magnetically separated magnetic poles, Searl effect generator, 2-to-1 cylinder noble gas power plant, fuel-less Richardson generator, cold operating start technology for 100 miles/gallon automobiles, Boyce hydrogen carburetor, continuous charger for batteries – flux shifter, magnetically powered rotary unit, DiMatt Wankel closed-cycle freon/rotary turbine and generator, fluid thrust diode, Russian electrochemical energy source, high-voltage injection of rain water into cold fog, SPARTEC vacuum triode amplifier, portable power supply solar unit for hot water for Sterling engine, advanced Stirling cycle power unit, vapor generator, gas-generating BingoFuel Reactor, remediating nuclear waste with electron-captured protons with significant net energy gain, Brown nuclear battery, Brinsbury hydrogen steam rotary engine, hydro-magnetic dynamo, gate impulse turbine, flux capacitor, pressurized vapor driven rotary engine, self-restoring mechanical oscillator engine, electric rocket, energy buoyancy source, pulsed capacitor discharge electric engine, zero point energy modules, Swiss M-L converter, “negative” resistance in carbon fibers, two wind turbine inventions, neutrino voltaics, torsion field energy applications, and plasma biomass gasification.
Doubtless numerous other energy inventions can be added to this list.
Other energy researchers can provide similarly extensive compilations of new energy technologies. Tom Valone’s Integrity Research Institute (see http://users.erols.com/iri/), Sterling Allan’s http://FreeEnergyNews.com/, http://www.infinite-energy.com/, Jerry Decker’s http://escribe.com/science/keelynet/, http://www.newenergytimes.com/, Bruce Meland’s
http://www.electrifyingtimes.com/, and Russia’s http://www.faraday.ru have all accumulated large databases of reports and comments on energy. Robert A. Nelson, P.O. Box 19250, Jean, Nevada 89019 amassed 10,000 pages on energy inventions and other scientific and technological subjects in his http://www.rexresearch.com – the contents of which are available on a $13 CD.
It seems likely that some of these inventions of new energy sources actually work as claimed and are suitably practical for worldwide deployment. An ideal energy source satisfies all these requirements:
• Is practical, economical, and scaleable from 1 kilowatt through 1000 megawatts.
• No rare elements for construction or fuel are needed.
• Operates standalone or needs minimal fuel or auxiliary energy input.
• Does not pollute.
• Can be stored and operated reliably and safely without burdensome maintenance outside in Death Valley during summer and at the South Pole during winter.
• Is silent.
• Inventor(s) is (are) reasonable to do business with.
Development and commercial manufacturing of a proven new energy source requires competent people, a doable business plan, integrity, and sufficient money to carry the enterprise until it reaches profitability. Each energy invention may be burdened with the baggage of its own unique little tale. Some energy inventors may be brilliant, of course, but are otherwise incompetent businesspeople. Development may be hampered by unethical investors or associates, an inventor’s illness or death, or suppression by existing energy industries and the tangle-footed US federal government. Shortcomings in the energy invention itself may need further research to be mitigated or eliminated, if possible.
New energy sources typically do not qualify for financial support from venture capital, large corporations restricted to operating within their chosen missions, and governments unaware of or even hostile to unconventional energy sources. Some state governments have chosen to encourage innovation by mitigating losses by private investors. For example, Nevada recently started its Nevada Capital Investment Corp. (see https://nevadatreasurer.gov/NCIC.htm) with $50,000,000 in initial funding.
The hydro-magnetic dynamo is a doughnut-shaped large-scale emission-free electrical generator which does not requires external fueling and operates safely, reliably and silently at moderate temperatures. The dynamo is capable of powering larger transportation vehicles such as buses, trucks, ships, locomotives, and airplanes. Doubt remains about making dynamos compact enough to power automobiles.
The circumstantial evidence for the Russian inventor’s performance claims for his hydro-magnetic dynamo is reasonably strong. While three experimental prototypes have been built with Russian and Armenian expertise and equipment, a fourth demonstration prototype needs to be built with more modern Western engineering expertise and equipment to verify dynamo performance claims and to further explore the dynamo’s potential capabilities. Performance claims are as follows:
Hydro-magnetic dynamos are scalable from 100 kilowatts to 1,000 megawatts. One doughnut-shaped, fuel-less 1000-megawatt dynamo is about the size of a two-car garage. For comparison, Hoover Dam’s 17 generators have a total nameplate capacity of 2,080 megawatts. Seven 1000-megawatt dynamos can be vertically stacked to comprise a single 7000-megawatt dynamo.
A dynamo can reliably run continuously for 25 years or more with little or no maintenance, no external fuel source, and no pollution. If a dynamo’s output is 1,000,000 watts, its total input power is approximately 10,000 watts. So the dynamo’s energy efficiency is 10,000%, or 100 to 1.
The source of the dynamo’s massive electrical output is a nuclear reaction which is not generally known to mainstream science. However, it is known that the dynamo produces alpha particles which are helium nuclei made from fused deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen with one proton and one neutron. The electrons missing from the helium nuclei are what seem to provide a copious “sink” of electricity, and which happen to be the secret to the dynamo’s ability to generate an exceptionally large amount of electricity.
It is also known that the dynamo uses high-density charge clusters. High-density charge clusters are the basis of plasma-injected transmutation of elements and also neutralization of radioactive materials.
There were three dynamo prototypes built. The first two small experimental prototypes were built in Vladivostok. The third and last prototype continuously generated electricity, except when turned off to incorporate improvements, from 1992 to January 1997 in Armenia. (It was sadly destroyed during an armed rebellion by local religious fanatics who were unhappy with the Armenian government.) It generated a constant current of 6,800 amperes at 220 volts DC. That multiplies out to nearly 1.5 megawatts. The Armenian prototype dynamo’s toroid weighed 900 kilograms and had a diameter of approximately 2 meters.
Cooling water is circulated through copper pipes wrapped around the toroid. The heat is expelled from the cooling water with a heat exchanger.
After a dynamo is assembled in a factory, the water is literally jump-started (by discharging a large bank of capacitors) to moving around the toroid. The dynamo’s controls are temporarily set to generating enough of a modest amount of electricity to sustain itself, even while being transported from the factory to its site. For the Armenian prototype dynamo, two 10-farad capacitor banks (from Russian military radar stations) were used to provide the initial water motion (acceleration and excitation of water). Using a total of 20,000 joules, 100,000 volts with 0.05 amperes of current were applied to the Armenian dynamo for 3 – 5 minutes for starting its generation of electricity.
After these Russian radar capacitors were used to jump-start the Armenian prototype dynamo, a bank of buffer batteries sustained continuous operation when water motion and ionizing occurs. This battery bank contained 8 powerful 12-volt, 150-ampere lead batteries. The Armenian dynamo’s sustaining input power was 14,400 watts. The nominal maximum output power is nearly 1,500,000 watts. Once, the output current was accidentally increased to 40,000 amperes for almost a minute. Fortunately, the power was reduced to a safe level before the water started to boil. Internal coils (windings) control water velocity and therefore dynamo power.
The dynamo’s production cost is estimated at $500 per kilowatt which is competitive to nuclear power’s capital costs of $5,000 per kilowatt, windmill capital costs of $4,000 per kilowatt, etc. A well-run nuclear power plant can generate power for 1.5 cents per kilowatt-hour, coal 1.8 cents, natural gas 3.4 cents, and oil 4.1 cents, on the average. The dynamo’s operating cost would be approximately .1 cent per kilowatt-hour with no external fuel needed nor pollution.
Dynamos could replace all nuclear power plants, solar installations, wood-burning furnaces, hydro-electric dams, windmills, fossil-fueled power plants, etc. Satellites, locomotives, heavy trucks, buses, airplanes, and ships are obvious transportation applications. It does not seem that dynamos can be made compact enough to power electric cars although it certainly would be worth trying.
A Forbes article states that PECO (formerly Philadelphia Electric Company), with an income stream to back it up, was able to sell on Wall Street $4 billion worth of bonds paying 5.8 per cent. A dynamo manufacturer could simply sell bonds to build and operate dynamos at a low interest rate. Dynamo loan payback times may be in the ball park of a half-year to a year, depending on the local electricity market price. As soon as a dynamo is paid for, the revenue from that time on would be almost pure profit.
Once a track record is established by successfully installing a few dynamos, the dynamo company could raise money to build more dynamos by simply selling billions of dollars of bonds instead of stock. So therefore, there wouldn’t be any dilution of ownership.
An IEEE Spectrum article a decade ago claimed that world demand for electricity increases approximately 500 megawatts every day. To put this in perspective, the equivalent of another Hoover Dam would have to be built every four days to keep up with world electricity increase demands. Or, a dynamo manufacturing company would have to build another 500-megawatt dynamo every single day of the year to keep up with world electricity increase demand in addition to replacing all existing generators fueled by hydro, nuclear, and fossil fuels.
The following is a highly condensed summary of the “Description” of the dynamo’s Russian patent IPC H 02 K 44/00 “Method of deriving of electrical energy and organization of Gritskevich’s MHD-generator for its realization”:
The dynamo is a sealed toroid filled with distilled water with heavy water (deuterium oxide) added. Movement of water inside the closed loop and use of unique properties of water as a polar liquid cause a release of electrical energy as an outcome of a rupture of hydrogen connections. Additional electrical energy is drawn from nuclear reactions and micro-cavitational processes. The liquid gets ionized and moving around the toroid at start-up time by a running magnetic field with the help of stimulating electromagnetic windings.
A layer of segnetoelectrical material covers the internal surfaces of the toroid. 32 electrodes made from a hard-alloy material are inserted into the toroid at equal distances apart. These 32 electrodes are connected to a power supply. Additional stimulation windings are also connected to the power supply.
The partially pre-ionized (on the part of the heavy water) water gets ionized further by the high-voltage discharges by the 32 electrodes. With the help of the stimulation windings, a running magnetic field is created which moves the water in one direction inside the toroid. An electromotive force gets created by the electromagnetic induction in a separate set of windings. During the movement of the water stream free electrons get created, and an additional energy gets emitted because of the water’s friction (viscosity) against the layer coated on the inside surface of the toroid, because of electrostatic breakdowns of cavitatal-vacuum structures, and because of the ongoing nuclear reaction. 100 times as much electrical energy is generated as required for electrical energy input.
Note that the hydro-magnetic dynamo is always producing electricity once it is manufactured and jump-started at the factory. Whenever a locomotive is parked in sub-freezing weather, its hydro-magnetic dynamo’s electricity output would be used to heat the dynamo’s containment to prevent its water-filled toroid from freezing. The hydro-magnetic dynamo’s excess electrical output could also be sold to the local power grid.
Inventor: Oleg V. Gritskevitch, Vladivostok, Russia
padrak.com/vesperman “Locomotive Power Sources”
Russian Patent WO 011505A1
BlackLight Power’s Hydrino Generator
BlackLight Power, Inc., is developing an exotic new source of clean energy from ordinary water. Either an electrolytic cell or gaseous potassium ions in a vacuum compress hydrogen atoms into lower-energy-state hydrogen atoms called “hydrinos”. When the hydrinos are formed, energy is released which in magnitude is between chemical and nuclear energy. BlackLight Power, Inc., has ambitious plans for retrofitting fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants.
BlackLight Power, Inc., is developing a 100-kilowatt generator which can power a car 100,000 miles on a tank of water. BlackLight Power, Inc., claimed some years ago that it is developing a 10-kilogram battery which can supply 150 horsepower for 1,000 miles.
BlackLight Power, Inc., has already licensed 8,250 megawatts of clean, safe hydrino generation fueled by water to seven utilities (Hoover Dam’s nameplate capacity is 2,080 megawatts) – eliminating $2 billion/year in fuel costs.
Inventor: Randall Mills, http://www.blacklightpower.com
See http://www.focusfusion.org/. Apparently this method is much less expensive than hot fusion.
Bob Dratch’s thorium powerpack would generate electricity at approximately one-tenth of the cost of current methods of producing electricity. Thorium is sufficiently abundant that the entire planet can be powered for millennia. After ten years of continuous operation, a trace amount of U-233 is produced. U-233 recovery to re-purify the thorium is easily accomplished. Thorium thus lasts a long time when recycled and consequently is a very efficient energy source. After extraction from ore, thorium does not require energy-intensive enrichment as is the case with uranium.
A thorium-powered reactor is inherently safe. It doesn’t run the risk of “meltdown” or explosion nor can even a dirty bomb be created. Its nuclear reaction simply stops when its neutron exciter is turned off.
The simplest and smallest “table top-sized ” neutron exciter design is something close to the size of a 4-D cell flashlight, and starts at about 500-kilovolt neutron output. In fact this smallest most cost-effective system can run off 4 D cells for its power.
A thorium powerpack’s neutron excitor does not use radioactive flux components as conventionally done for portable systems. Instead it relies on Dratch’s invention of a novel method of resonant phonon pair cleavage using specifically designed nuclear lattice holo-forms (holographic waveforms) to induce neutron imbalance in a host atom where the host atom then attempts to establish “balance” through the liberation of neutrons. Dratch demonstrated the first model of this novel design back in 1966.
Commercial thorium powerpacks can be developed with 50 or 100 kilowatts of output for home use, and up to 1 megawatt for industrial use. They actually are “power amplifiers” with power outputs of 60 times over input power. Maintenance would be minimal.
Inventor: Robert J. Dratch, Black Hawk, Colorado, USA bob-dratch.org
padrak.com/vesperman “Locomotive Power Sources”
IPMS Thorium-227 Electricity Generator
The I.N. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science (IPMS), Kiev, Ukraine, from 1951 through 1991 secretly employed 6600 of the most brilliant theoretical physicists in the entire Soviet Union to work for nearly 50 years with complete freedom. They were able to develop whole new sciences, technologies and materials unknown in the West.
Their models of non-linear quantum mechanics, plasma physics, atomic engineering, nuclear physics and related mathematical and theoretical constructs, which made their development possible, are so unique that they challenge the validity of the most fundamental assumptions embodied in the Copenhagen Interpretation model currently held in general acceptance in the West.
For example, Western-developed particle/wave quantum mechanics is described by Einstein’s E = MC2. The Soviet nonlinear model of quantum mechanics is described by the formula E = MKv [Energy = Mass @ rest as a function of a mathematical constant].
Einstein’s theory of relativity assumes that the speed of light is constant. However, measurements have shown that the speed of light has slowed down 7 per cent over the past two centuries. (See http://worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE ID=39733.) Einstein’s famous equation is therefore not based on the real world of peer-reviewed experimental results. Consequently the more correct Soviet model has enabled numerous technical advances not even dreamed of by Western science.
Among several energy inventions developed by the IPMS are free-standing thorium-227 isotope electric power generating plants. They can be small enough to power a single home and large enough to power whole communities. They also can operate for up to 18 years without ever requiring refueling or maintenance.
Twelve Thorium Energy Patents
“I have twelve thorium energy patents pending. The provisional patents have been issued.”
David Yurth’s email to Gary Vesperman January 22, 2012
Micro-Fusion Reactor Employing Stable High-Density Plasma Electron Spiral Toroids In Neutron Tube
Electron Power Systems, Inc., (EPS) has discovered the explanation for ball lightning and from that has invented and protected with five patents an Electron Spiral Toroid Spheromak micro-fusion reactor. Safe, pollution-free micro-fusion reactor-powered generators could reliably generate electricity with capacities ranging from 10 kilowatts through 1000 megawatts at the cost of 10% of today’s electricity. All transportation vehicles could be reliably and safely powered with micro-fusion reactors with substantially lower production, operating and maintenance costs and without poisonous emissions. EPS expects to reduce the mass and cost of aircraft by 70%, and space launch costs by more than 95%.
Each year 15 million cars and trucks are sold in the USA, and 48 million are sold worldwide. EPS expects to eventually replace all of them with silent, reliable, safe, emissions-free micro-fusion reactor powered electric vehicles with substantially lower production, operating, and maintenance costs.
In addition, EPS has designed a 10kW generator that will operate on clean, non-polluting fuel, and can operate locally. This innovation will potentially improve the lives of most of humanity by making available low cost electricity that anyone can produce in their own homes. It will help literally billions of people. The paper design shows that the EPS generator will be the approximate size and cost of a 10 kW generator available today in any hardware store, with the advantage that it will not use fossil fuels, but will use clean energy instead.
An article in the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc., Spectrum magazine over ten years ago stated that world demand for electricity increases approximately 500 megawatts every day. To put this in perspective, the equivalent of another Hoover Dam would have to be built every four days to keep up with world electricity increase demands. The EPS innovation will make local generation possible without the need for more power plants or more power lines.
Major contributors to air and water pollution are the fossil-fueled engines of aircraft, farm harvesters and tractors, ships, boats, snowmobiles, trains, military vehicles, and all-terrain vehicles. Their engines could be replaced with cheaper electric motors and batteries charged by safe, non-polluting onboard micro-fusion reactor powered generators.
Electron Power Systems, Inc., (EPS) is an early stage company working to develop the Electron Spiral Toroid Spheromak micro-fusion reactor. From EPS will come new applications, including a practical micro-fusion electricity generator, a low-cost space launch vehicle, a high-kinetic energy anti-missile beam, and practical zero-emission cars, trucks, buses, farm equipment, construction equipment, military vehicles, and jet aircraft.
EPS is moving to commercialize these concepts. EPS has assembled a team of engineers, and plasma physicists, all as contractors. EPS is working on proof of concept demonstrations for the applications.
EPS plans to build a laboratory demonstration unit in two to three years with present funding levels, and then the first commercial prototype. Recent breakthroughs in the EPS lab give confidence this will happen within this timeframe. More funding will make this happen sooner.
EPS is seeking $2 million as a first round of investment to complete the development of a demonstration unit in eighteen months. A second investment of $8 million will be needed to complete a prototype unit in eighteen months after the demonstration unit.
Up until now EPS has had no sales and operates with funding from angel investors, each of whom is retired and has accumulated a substantial personal fortune, allowing these types of investments of high risk, high reward. EPS also operates with funding from the founder.
EPS operates on a low budget, spends only what it has, and has incurred no debt or obligations. In this manner it is able to operate indefinitely, while continuing to make progress each year. Additional small amounts of funding will speed developments.
EPS has made a new discovery in physics with the potential to locally produce low-cost, clean energy for homes and buildings, independent of power plants. EPS owns the new technology and plans to initially produce a safe, clean, 10-kilowatt electricity generator that needs no nuclear fuels nor fossil fuels and will produce no green house gases.
A home owner would need a one-liter sized container of environmentally benign hydrogen/boron fuel per year at a 20:1 fuel cost savings compared to commercially produced electricity or fossil fuels.
EPS’s new discovery would allow anyone worldwide to buy a small home generator, about the size but less than the cost of a Sears 10-kilowatt portable generator. It would power their home plus several nearby homes even where there are no power grids or power plants. This will be a step towards providing low-cost, local electricity to help eliminate poverty worldwide.
EPS plans to build 10-kilowatt generators by applying its newly discovered technology to improve work done by others to create energy. The basic work was shown successfully in the 1980s at the University of Miami. But that technology had limitations at that time. EPS’s new technology will overcome those limitations.
From a modest start with producing 10-kilowatt micro-fusion reactor powered generators, EPS expects to branch out to other applications of its technology as well as producing larger and larger generators.
Mankind’s practically insatiable demand for energy implies a simply humongous market potential for EPS which would encompass all of the world’s producers of oil, coal, uranium and electricity plus all manufacturers of transportation vehicles including cars, trucks, buses, farm equipment, ships, boats, construction equipment, trains, satellites, aircraft, snowmobiles, and military vehicles.
Several thousand neutron tubes are in use in the USA today that safely collide hydrogen ions to produce neutrons, which in turn are used for medical testing, industrial process control, and homeland security. An ion source produces hydrogen ions (deuterium), which are accelerated to 110 kilovolts, then directed to hit a hydrogen target (also deuterium), which produces neutrons, and also heat as a waste product. Neutron tubes today produce neutrons and a low level of heat energy. The low density of the hydrogen ions limits the amount of energy produced.
In the 1970’s, Dr. Wells at the University of Miami collided two plasma toroids to produce low-level fusion energy in the TRISOPS system. The amount of energy produced was limited by the short duration time of the plasma toroids used, as well as their low density and their low level of energy.
Electron Power Systems, Inc., (www.electronpowersystems.com) has discovered a plasma electron spiral toroid that remains stable without magnetic confinement, by using background gas pressure for confinement instead. These new plasma toroids are observed to remain stable for thousands of times longer than classical plasma toroids, which opens the way for new clean energy applications.
EPS’s new stable plasma electron spiral toroids overcomes each of the neutron tubes limitations, and will potentially result in fusion with no magnetic containment required – thus producing a practical micro-fusion reactor. EPS’s challenge is to adapt the new stable plasma toroid to the TRISOPS method.
The micro-fusion reactor adapts the Electron Spiral Toroid (EST) Spheromak to the neutron tube design. The EST Spheromak is patented jointly with MIT scientists who also have published papers confirming the EST Spheromak physics and data. The EST Spheromak will overcome the neutron tube limitations by increasing ion density by 2500 times. A metal containment can be used for efficient heat energy collection and conversion.
The EST Spheromak micro-fusion reactor will be less than three feet in length, the same as for present neutron tubes, and small enough to fit in an electric car. Elimination of the need for magnetic containment allows this power supply to be small and compact. A micro-fusion reactor will use hydrogen/boron to produce clean energy without neutrons. The energy in one pound of hydrogen/boron fuel equals the energy of 250,000 pounds of gasoline. Hydrogen and boron are plentiful and will not run out, as oil is projected to do in the 21st century.
The Electron Spiral Toroid Spheromak (ESTS) is a plasma toroid that is self-organized and self-stable with no magnetic fields needed to contain it. Inventor Clint Seward has not seen any published descriptons of any devices nor phenomena similar to the ESTS. The US Patent Office agrees and has issued five patents.
The micro-fusion reactor was recently selected by the New Energy Congress as one of the few technologies now known to have a genuine potential to replace fossil fuels. See the lengthy analysis of the micro-fusion reactor in http://pesn.com/2006/03/08/9600242_Spheromak_Plasma_Toroid/.
“Locomotive Power Sources” for high-speed rail in http://www.padrak.com/vesperman includes the micro-fusion reactor with BlackLight Power’s hydrino generator, focus fusion, Robert Dratch’s thorium powerpack, Kiev, Ukraine’s I.N. Frantsevich Institute of Problems of Materials Sciences (IPMS) thorium-227 electricity generator, Clem over-unity vegetable oil engine, thin-film electrolytic cells, noble gas plasma engine, Searl effect generator, Magnatron – light-activated cold fusion magnetic motor, Oleg Gritsevich’s hydro-magnetic dynamo, IPMS energy storage/battery device, metamatter which is solid crystallized fully-ionized plasma, Gordon Ziegler’s electrino fusion power reactor, and environmental heat engines.
Some of these listed new energy inventions appear to have at least one limitation that is not shared with the ESTS micro-fusion reactor.
The Electron Spiral Toroid Spheromak (ESTS) micro-fusion reactor has five patents and is documented in published papers confirming the physics and data. (1), (2), (3), (4)
Clint Seward discovered the ESTS (5) while studying ball lightning. Seward has developed a secret formula to produce the ESTS that is not reported in any other reference to date that he has seen.
Why this is important is that all spheromaks reported to date dissipate in microseconds, while the ESTS has been observed to endure with no confining magnetic field for hundreds of milliseconds, and theoretically will remain stable for many seconds.
1. Seward, C., Chen, C., Ware, K., Ball Lightning Explained as a Stable Plasma Toroid. PPPS- 2001 Pulsed Power Plasma Science Conference, June 2001.
2. D. C. Seward, C. Chen, R. Temkin, Energy Storage Device, US Patent 6,140,752, Oct. 31, 2000.
3. C. Chen, R. Pakter, and D.C. Seward, Equilibrium and Stability Properties of Self-Organized Electron Spiral Toroids, Physics of Plasmas. Vol. 8, No. 10. Oct. 2001.
4. W. J. Guss, Chen, C., Equilibrium of Self-Organized Electron Spiral Toroids. Physics of Plasmas. August 2002.
5. Seward, C., Ball Lightning Explanation, Leading to Clean Energy. Acton, MA 01720. Seward Publishing Co., 2011.
EPS plans to initially produce a safe, clean, 10-kilowatt electricity generator that needs no nuclear fuels nor fossil fuels and will produce no green house gases. A home owner would need a one-liter sized container of environmentally benign hydrogen/boron fuel per year at a 20:1 fuel cost savings compared to commercially produced electricity or fossil fuels.
But first EPS needs to obtain $2 million as a first round of investment to complete the development of a demonstration unit in eighteen months. A second investment of $8 million will then be needed to complete a prototype unit in eighteen months after the demonstration unit.
EPS’s new discovery would allow anyone worldwide to buy a small home generator, about the size but less than the cost of a Sears 10-kilowatt portable generator. It would power their home plus several nearby homes even where there are no power grids or power plants. This will be a step towards providing low-cost, local electricity to help eliminate poverty worldwide.
From a modest start producing clean, reliable, safe 10-kilowatt micro-fusion reactor powered generators, EPS plans to methodically produce larger and larger generators. EPS even has a preliminary design with supporting calculations for massive 1000-megawatt baseload generators.
Mankind’s demand for energy implies an enormous market for micro-fusion reactors encompassing all of the world’s producers of oil, coal, uranium and electricity plus all manufacturers of transportation vehicles including cars, trucks, buses, farm equipment, ships, boats, trains, satellites, aircraft, mining equipment, snowmobiles, construction equipment, and military vehicles.
Countries which export oil will benefit from not having to quickly burn up their finite oil reserves on cheap gasoline and diesel fuel. Instead they will be able to draw down their reserves more slowly by making products of higher value such as plastics, medicines, fertilizers and synthetic textiles.
Some years ago a Forbes article stated that PECO (formerly Philadelphia Electric Company), with an income stream to back it up, was able to sell on Wall Street $4 billion worth of bonds paying 5.8 per cent. A micro-fusion reactor powered generator manufacturer could simply sell bonds to build and operate generators at a low interest rate. Generator loan payback times may be in the ball park of a half-year to a year, depending on the local electricity market price. As soon as a micro-fusion powered generator is paid for, the revenue from that time on would be almost pure profit. Once a track record is established by successfully installing a few micro-fusion reactor powered generators, Electron Power Systems, Inc., could raise money to build and install more generators by simply selling billions of dollars of bonds instead of stock. So therefore, there wouldn’t be any dilution of ownership.
EPS plans to partner with major electricity producers and suppliers. EPS will license them to produce electricity as they do now. EPS plans to partner with automobile manufacturers to license the technology. EPS plans to partner with defense and aerospace contractors to license the technology.
Clint Seward is the discoverer of the Electron Spiral Toroid Spheromak and received the initial patents. He has been working ever since to scale up the results, which he has been able to do recently. He has been a project design engineer and program manager for many years, working initially with the US Air Force B-58 Hustler program, and as a project manager and engineering manager in several major corporations. His work was defense initially, moving to security and process control, then energy related.
Clint was an Engineering Manager for Mosler, an American Standard Division 1970 thru 1978, and an Engineering Manager and VP of Marketing for Bristol-Babcock 1978-1985 – an ACCO fortune 500 Company. He was General Manager of Iontrack, a Division of a large international company 1985-1989 (now a Division of GE). He has been President of his own company Electron Power Systems, Inc. from 1989 to present.
Education: MSEE; University of Michigan 1965; BS at US Military Academy at West Point 1963.
D C Seward is the VP Engineering of Electron Power Systems, Inc. He has worked on the micro-fusion reactor technology since its inception in 1986. He has the responsibility for organizing the experiments and bringing qualified people in to help with the work.
DC has worked as the VP Engineering of EPS on a contract basis from 1998-Present as funding allows. He is employed full time as a Field Sales engineer for Ember Systems, a wireless technology company, 2005-Present. Previously he was a Product Design Engineer, Trimble Navigation: 1994-1998
Education: MSEE Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1994.
Jim Becker is acting CEO and Marketing VP. Jim has experience as a senior executive in the high tech sector with extensive experience managing rapid growth organizations. He has a broad technology background with proven skills in computer systems, avionics industries, and health care information technology along with direct functional experience in finance, sales, marketing, engineering and corporate management in both domestic and international settings.
Education: Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College; Master of Engineering 1976; Master of Business Administration 1975; Bachelor of Engineering 1970.
PAPERS AND PATENTS for Clint Seward:
Chen, C., Pakter, R., Seward, D. C. “Equilibrium and Stability Properties of Self-Organized Electron Spiral Toroids.” Physics of Plasmas. Vol. 8, No. 10. October 2001.
Seward, C., Chen, C., Ware, K. “Ball Lightning Explained as a Stable Plasma Toroid.” PPPS-2001 Pulsed Power Plasma Science Conference. June 2001.
Seward, C. “Propulsion Using a Stable Plasma Thruster.” STAIF 2001, (Space Technology and Applications International Forum-2001). American Institute of Physics , http://www.aip.org/catalog/conforder.html. February 15, 2001.
Seward, C.; Chen, C., Temkin, R. ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE , US Patent 6,140,752, October 31, 2000.
Seward, D. C. Electron Spiral Toroid; US Patent 5,773,919; June 30, 1998.
Seward, D. C. Energy Storage System, US Patent No. 5,589,727. December 31, 1996.
Seward, D. C., Chen, C., Temkin, R. (1996b). International Patent Application WO 96/38848, Energy Storage Device, Published December 5, 1996.
Seward, D. C. Fixed Geometry Plasma and Generator, US Patent 5,175,466. Dec. 29, 1992.
ESP’s President Clint Seward collaborated with Gary Vesperman in writing a description of Seward’s invention in http://www.padrak.com/vesperman. See “Locomotive Power Sources”.
The Products page of http://www.electronpowersystems.com sells a book “Ball Lightning: Leading to Clean Energy” and a paper “Spheromaks Observed Forming in Atmosphere”. Paper’s abstract:
Plasma toroids, called spheromaks, are reported here as observed forming in partial atmosphere from high power electric arc events similar in power to lightning ground strokes. The spheromaks are observed to be stable in partial atmosphere with no confining magnetic fields and are observed to last for more than 200 milliseconds in partial atmosphere. This paper describes the observations and presents a model that explains the properties of these spheromaks, which we call Electron Spiral Toroid Spheromaks ( ESTS’s) due to the spiraling motion of the charged particles. It includes four TV images.
The model presented is a hollow toroid with a thin outer shell of electrons that all travel in parallel paths orthogonal to the toroid circumference, in effect spiraling around the toroid. A comparable inner surface of ions acts to neutralize the space charge. The paper provides formulas describing the ESTS. Potential ESTS applications include X-ray production, air defense, and energy production.
The cost to produce a 10-kilowatt EST Spheromak electricity generator would be about $1100 in production quantities. The EST Spheromak generator would have fewer parts than a comparable Sears generator.
Electron Power Systems, Inc., does not have a working prototype. The company has identified the instrumentation and needs another $100,000 for laboratory work. With $2,000,000, the company expects to have in two years a demonstrable prototype. In an additional year for $8,000,000 a production prototype is expected to be built. Remember, each piece of the project uses technology others have demonstrated.
Inventor: Clint Seward, Acton, Massachusetts, USA electronpowersystems.com
US Patents 5,175,466, 5,589,727, 5,773,919, and 6,140,752
http://www.padrak.com/vesperman “Locomotive Power Sources”
Davis Tidal Turbine
The worldwide electrical energy market has been estimated at $800 billion (US) per year and rising. “There are 2 billion people who still lack electricity today, and the world demand in developing countries is doubling every eight years.” (World Watch Institute, May 1997)
The Davis tidal turbine was invented by Canadian aerospace engineer Barry Davis. His company, Blue Energy Canada, Inc., owns one patent and has filed additional patent applications.
The Davis tidal turbine captures the power of ocean currents and tides to generate electric current in a module fitted with slowly rotating hydrofoils. The module does not emit gas of any kind, nor do the hydrofoils offer any threat to marine organisms swimming through them. With fixed rotor blades mounted in durable marine concrete caissons, the Davis tidal turbine’s mechanical simplicity is profound. The basic concept is the multiple vertical-axis hydro turbine. They are large marine structures of reinforced concrete and steel that provide the necessary economies of scale. They generally can be installed in areas with a tidal regime of about 1 meter or more, or where velocities exceed about 2 meters per second. Standardized tidal turbine modules can be grouped to meet any site application from ocean to river in sizes that range from 7.5 megawatts to 15 megawatts for ocean use, and 5 kilowatts to 500 kilowatts for river use.
The Davis tidal turbine is a low-cost, eco-benign energy alternative. Fueled by the free forces of rivers and ocean tides and currents, tidal power can provide a significant amount of the world’s energy needs. Energy costs with the Davis tidal turbine will be around $0.06/kilowatt-hour and eventually should drop to $0.035/kilowatt-hour for tidal fences in the 1000-megawatt range. Power outputs from the larger units can be accurately predicted to within 2% accuracy.
In many instances, tidal fences can double up with transportation corridors, providing dual infrastructure use with essentially single infrastructure cost. Coupled with existing grid prices and mounting social and environmental costs associated with conventional power generation (health care, climate change, etc.) tidal power is an outstanding and sustainable energy choice. Remote sites can also produce hydrogen, hydrogen peroxide, methane and other valuable energy intensive products for widespread distribution, as well as provide irrigation and desalination facilities.
Tidal energy sites in the world’s oceans can provide a significant, viable and cost-effective source of reliable, inexhaustible energy. Many are strategically located close to populated areas where they can be economically harnessed using an ecologically benign, low-head technology. For example, British Columbia may have up to 50,000 megawatts of potential tidal power resource.
The Philippines Presidential Office had announced on December 20, 1997 a $136,000,000 (US) order for a pilot tidal power generation facility which is likely to be in the Hinatuan Passage area just north of Mindanao. Its average power output will be 30 megawatts, and its peak power will be 55 megawatts. The pilot project is performance-coupled to the future development rights of a 1000-megawatt commercial project. The Philippines hope to become energy exporters.
POWR/MASTR™ Industrial Engine
The commercially available POWR/MASTR™ is a high-efficiency, long-life industrial engine which is fueled by natural gas, propane or butane. A POWR/MASTR™ can be directly connected to gas company pipelines and so never needs refueling. Each POWR/MASTR™ unit can generate over 145 horsepower for mechanical power needs, or 100 kilowatts of electricity for electric power needs. POWR/MASTR™ units can be linked together in parallel and/or linked to utility company electricity to satisfy energy requirements of any size.
POWR/MASTR™ offers savings of up to 50% over other mechanical power costs, or up to 70% over utility company charges for electricity. A San Diego shopping center saves $125,000 per year in electricity costs.
POWR/MASTR™ is environmentally friendly, using only clean burning gases at a maximum rate of 9 therms/900,000 Btu/900 cubic feet per hour of natural gas. When less power is needed than 100 kilowatts or 145 horsepower, POWR/MASTR™ automatically self-adjusts to use less fuel. Operating at less than a quiet 60 dB at 20 feet, POWR/MASTR™ sounds no louder than a new car engine at idle. It also produces far less harmful exhaust emissions than a typical gasoline-fueled automotive engine. POWR/MASTR™ is fully automated and designed for 60 months of continuous use with maintenance regularly scheduled every 1,500 hours.
Each POWR/MASTR™ unit weighs 3,200 lb., and its size is 8 feet long by 5 feet wide by 6 feet high. A POWR/MASTR™ unit can be transported on its own delivery trailer and installed by one person in about four hours after site preparation. No cranes, work crews, nor special foundations are necessary. An adjustable level platform system is built-in so that no poured nor perfectly level pad is required. Controls are included at no charge to allow more than one POWR/MASTR™ unit to deliver electricity with other power generation units or in conjunction with utility company power.
The hydrosonic pump seems destined to become a billion-dollar invention with many applications. It is really a zero-pressure boiler, not a pump. The inventor has been calling it a pump so as to avoid entanglement with strict American Society of Mechanical Engineers boiler codes.
Mechanical input power rotates the shaft, and plain water is converted to steam without the need for hot surfaces. The process seems to be actually a form of fusion where collapsing microscopic bubbles momentarily create extremely high pressures and temperatures. The technical term for this phenomenon is “sono-luminescence”. The energy conversion efficiency is around 130%. (To prevent confusion, it should be clearly understood that the hydrosonic pump on the macro scale does not operate at high temperatures and pressures as is the case with nuclear or fossil-fueled boilers.)
One application is to use a windmill to turn the shaft. Out of the nozzle comes steam which drives a steam turbine to produce electricity. The steam then enters a condenser from which can be obtained potable water and hot water for space heating. For remote islands, for example, the hydrosonic pump would be very useful. One utility is reportedly already looking at increasing the efficiencies of its nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants by 3 – 5 percentage points.
Nevada has large underground reservoirs of useless mineralized water. The hydrosonic pump could be the centerpiece of a large-scale scheme to generate electricity, heat and potable water.
The hydrosonic pump is actually being commercially manufactured and sold. The inventor definitely is using the correct approach in that since the pump is such a new technology, for some time he has been simply building one unit at a time in various sizes and configurations. He has been purposely restricting their sale to local installations so he can closely monitor their performance and incorporate improvements and changes into future units.
As of May 1996, he had 14 units actually installed and operating. One application is for producing clean steam on demand for a commercial laundry. Based on feedback from customers’ experience with them, he is evolving step-by-step in an organized manner towards eventual mass production of fully validated units. It seems to be much easier to obtain expansion capital for actual commercial units than “laboratory queens”.
Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge Reactor
A typical flashlight’s light bulb is a glass vacuum tube where the flashlight’s batteries force current through the bulb’s filament, resulting in a power loss equal to the square of the current times the positive resistance of the filament. The power is then radiated out of the light bulb as light and heat.
Physicists have known for many years that the pulsed abnormal glow of a discharge tube has a negative resistance characteristic. What physicists have not appreciated, until the development of the PAGD reactor, was the real possibility or the knowledge of precisely how to go about extracting ‘free’ energy by exciting self-sustaining oscillations in the plasma discharge.
The pulsed abnormal glow discharge (PAGD) reactor (U.S. Patents 5,416,391, 5,449,989, and 5,502,354) is an over-sized glass vacuum tube which is constructed and electrically driven within a narrow range of DC voltage so that it operates with negative resistance. Because of the reactor’s negative resistance, other components with positive resistance such as light bulbs, batteries, and motors can be inserted in the circuit without drawing energy from the DC power source, up to the reactor’s maximum amount of negative resistance.
The PAGD reactor’s function is based upon heretofore unknown spontaneous emission properties of certain metals in vacuum and involves an anomalous cathode reaction force. The reactor may be conceived of as a portable vacuum battery made active only when needed.
The technology employs cold-cathode vacuum discharge plasma reactors to set up self-exciting oscillations, in the form of pulsed abnormal glow discharges triggered by auto-electronic emissions, in order to produce power. The circuit is driven from a direct current source of impedance sufficient to prevent establishment of a sustained vacuum arc discharge. In combination with a special circuit, electrical power, in excess of the input power needed for operation, can be extracted. The system, therefore, may also be referred to as an over-unity system where net energy output greatly exceeds net energy input.
The experimental data show numerous tests involving the discharge of a source bank of 12-volt cells as the powered apparatus recharges an output bank of cells and/or runs an electric motor. In one typical test run, within 20 minutes, 0.988 kilowatt-hour of energy is generated for an input of 0.258 kilowatt-hours. Power conversion gain performance efficiencies are clearly shown in the figures by data plots on a scale that runs to 1000%. One power conversion gain efficiency cited was 483%.
It seems that the PAGD reactor’s inventors have conquered the problem of electrode over-heating after long duration running of many devices built using different electrode configurations, shapes and materials. The PAGD reactor’s development is now at the point where predictably 40 megawatt-hours of energy can be delivered from something of light-weight construction that one can hold in one hand.
Imagine holding something that can deliver 2 kilowatts of electrical power output and keep going for 20,000 hours. Then ask yourself when we can expect to see self-powered electrical vehicles on our roads using somewhat larger versions of those tubes.
Unlike the chemically-assisted nuclear reaction process, which outputs low-grade heat, the PAGD reactor directly generates electricity at power voltage levels, without any utilization of cold or thermonuclear fusion principles. Another important feature of the apparatus is that it employs no radioactive compounds and generates no nuclear radiation or radioisotopes. The energy system is entirely pollution-free, self-contained and composed of readily recyclable materials. Storage of the power produced may be carried out by traditional means, be these mechanical or electrical.
At least three patents have so far been issued. One of the patents involves an associated motor drive which provides for direct electromechanical transformation of the energy accumulated within the reactor. Additional patents covering various aspects and applications of the PAGD reactor are being sought.
Energy conversion system applications for electric vehicles, stand-alone power supplies and autonomous housing are currently under development. The inventors hope that by making vehicles self-sufficient in terms of energy, the PAGD reactor will offer the possibility of bypassing massive infrastructure expansions in order to make the electric vehicle a feasible reality while solving the problem of range which currently detracts from its appeal. Other potential applications include pulsed lasers, inverters, transformer and motor circuits. The inventors are presently engaged in negotiating licensing agreements with a view to development of the applications.
Electronically Shaded Photo-Voltaic Glass
By laminating a specially designed layer of liquid crystal material between panes of either clear glass or clear polycarbonate materials, which have been coated with an ITO or transparent metallic conductive film, a window transparency control system has been created which enables the viewer to darken the window pane [or other application] electronically, without the aid of shutters, blinds or curtains. The panel also rotates polarity up to 90 degrees from the vertical and substantially reduces infrared transmissivity. Buildings with windows made of electronically shaded photo-voltaic glass should have significantly lower air conditioning loads because they offer full blockage of infrared radiation. Buildings should additionally have lower net electrical power consumption because windows facing the sun will be able to generate usable photo-voltaic electricity.
CRL Opto has built and is testing the initial proof-of-concept prototypes equipped with gradient controls for transmissivity using photo-spectrographic protocols. This application is ready for production and is patent protected (US Patent No. 7,356,969 B1, April 15, 2008). Inventor is David Yurth.
Hutchison Self-Charged Battery
The Self-Charged Battery generates a perpetual Direct Current (DC) voltage without external recharging. By stacking enough self-charged batteries into a single DC generator, the generator’s DC voltage can be converted to regulated Alternating Current (AC) electricity and thereby silently electrify a house without fuel nor emission of pollutants. The DC voltage could also power an electric vehicle’s DC motor. Inventor is John Hutchison.
Testatika Free Energy Machine
The Testatika free energy machine was developed over a 20-year research period in Switzerland. It resembles a Wimshurst electrostatic generator commonly seen in high school physics labs. Other documents may refer to it as the “Swiss M-L converter” or “Thesta-Distatica.” The inventor of this superb machine, Paul Baumann, claims its running principle was found by studying the effects of lightning.
Testatika not only runs on its own energy but produces also a huge amount of excess power. A video shows a demonstrator unit producing at least 3 kilowatts of power. Yet the machine is only about 70 cm wide, 40 cm deep, and about 60 cm tall. It delivers DC voltage ranging from 270 to 320 volts, only depending on the dryness of the air. At this voltage it can supply at least 10 amperes of DC current.
Testatika is not a perpetuum mobile, but an energy machine that collects its “free” energy from the charged and ionized air particles. Some technological tricks are implemented to overcome the normal drag-resistance of a conventional Wimshurst machine, which is still the secret of the Swiss group. However, progress is being made by several researchers in the underground science network in deducing and explaining the basic mechanisms of this remarkable machine.
The initial high voltage, at high frequency, is produced by twin counter-revolving electrostatic disks made from magnetic stainless steel. The magnetic disk segments provide an electromagnetic speed control for the disks, while functioning as electrostatic elements to provide the very high voltage.
The solid-state amplification subsystem consists of polarized sections of barium-iron permanent magnets with multiple coil arrays, as first introduced by Hans Coler in Germany during the 1940’s. This subsystem increases the amperage level about 20 times from the 150 watts from the twin electrostatic disks up to about 3000 watts at the output terminals.
An independent feedback subsystem provides the electromagnetic force to power a small DC motor to revolve the twin electrostatic disks continuously. This arrangement consists of two horseshoe magnets with coil sets wound fully around each magnet leg. This feedback method provides that the Testatika free-energy machine is a fully standalone system, with no external power input. Once the two disks are turned by hand, they continue to revolve on their own, producing free energy.
The Testatika machines (some smaller units also exist which only deliver about 200-300 watts) are not yet mass-production type models. They are still laboratory prototype units, although they are built with a very good craftsmanship. No maintenance is required with these units.
Engine Powered by Gas with Unusual Expansion Properties
In 1995, a man named Volcheck of Grand Coulee, Washington, made a trip across the United States and back in a car powered by a special gas he developed that had unusual expansion properties. He claimed to have obtained the formula from some unpublished notes of Leonardo Da Vinci.
Volcheck says the gas expands enormously at about 395 degrees Fahrenheit to 450 pounds pressure. In other words, from approximately 390 to 395 degrees Fahrenheit, the gas expands from a volume of one unit to a volume of 10,000 units. He used this gas in a modified Franklin aircraft engine which behaved more like a steam engine. He never refueled during the trip, consuming $10 worth of this special gas.
GeoExchange Heat Pump
A refrigerator is a one-way heat pump that cools the inside of the box by removing heat, which is then pumped someplace else. Cold air is not pumped into refrigerators.
Conventional air conditioners pump hot air from the inside of a home into the outside air. Because the outside air is already so hot in the summer, the difficulty of pumping hot air into air that is already hot results in low efficiency and high energy costs.
GeoExchange Heat Pumps are electrically-powered devices that use the natural heat storage ability of the earth or the earth’s ground water to heat and cool a structure. They are being promoted by the Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium which claims that they can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40% or more over traditional air conditioners.
At the Bella Vivente subdivision of Lake Las Vegas, Henderson, Nevada, their GeoExchange system pumps heat into and out of homes with one loop of pipe which is connected to the lake. Residents save an average of $150 per month in heating and air conditioning bills. Other advantages include eliminating noisy and unattractive outdoor condensers and cooling towers.
This simple process reportedly incinerates garbage, sawdust, and wood chips at such an unbelievably high temperature that even thermocouples at 3200 degrees burn up. So little odor and smoke is produced that a prototype was tested indoors. Very little waste is left behind which needs to be trucked away. The high-grade heat from this type of incinerator can be used for generating electricity and producing process heat.
High-Density Charge Clusters Technology
This nearly solid-state electrical energy converter (U.S. Patent 5,018,180) has a stable over-unity power conversion gain of approximately 5. The gain can be cranked up to a maximum of approximately 30 but then loses stability. A fax sent August 1996 reported that it now “appears capable of providing 1 kilowatt of thermal energy plus 1 kilowatt of electrical output per cubic inch with a power supply (small) and heat exchanger”. The high-density charge cluster device also offers ease of manufacture as well as compactness.
It is thought that this new technology is so fundamental that ultimately 1,000 doctorate theses could be researched and written by academia. For example, one university is researching flat-panel displays based on high-density charge clusters technology. High-density charge clusters technology appears to be a credible candidate for an advanced self-powered electric vehicle’s on-board battery charger.
Cold Fusion Reactor with Thermal-to-Electric Conversion
These are small reactors similar to electrolytic cells which produce more thermal energy than their electrical energy input. Power gains have reportedly been measured as high as several hundred. When atoms are being transmuted under specialized low-energy conditions, thermal energy is released. The heat can be directly converted to electricity. The electricity could then be transmitted to another geographically separate site and used to power two or more reactors. Reactors could in theory be cascaded indefinitely. Two drawbacks of cold fusion are the requirement for water and the need to occasionally replace electrodes. Some cold fusion researchers have changed the terminology to “low-energy nuclear transmutation”.
Hybrid Cold-Fusion Hydrogen Reactor
This reactor is intended to be an economical super-efficient heater for homes and as a hot water heater. The device is so new that its potential ultimate electrical input-to-thermal output conversion gain is yet to be experimentally determined. Applications could include heating homes and other buildings, greenhouses, and fish tanks. The electrodes are made of nickel. Because the country has nickel deposits, it could manufacture its own hybrid cold fusion hydrogen reactors. Inventor is Hans Becker.
Gas-Phase Catalytic Fusion
Activated carbon catalysts are loaded with various precious metals (by weight, in the range of 0.1% to 0.5%). Palladium works best so far. When these catalysts are heated, considerable excess heat is produced reliably when such catalysts are exposed to several atmospheres of heavy hydrogen gas (deuterium gas). Pairs of deuterium atoms are fused to produce waste helium-4 atoms plus abundant clean heat. No lethal radiation is released. One cubic kilometer of ocean water contains enough deuterium that when catalytically fused, the energy released equals the chemical combustion energy in all of the earth’s known oil reserves. With suitable insulation, the process, once started, is self-heating. Temperatures can rise well above the boiling temperature of water. Engineered with efficient heat exchangers, thermal/electrical energy generators can be built in sizes for applications ranging from mobile homes to large centralized generating stations. No electrolysis is involved nor are finicky electrodes required as with some other types of low-energy nuclear transmutation devices. However, the device’s requirement for rare precious metals such as palladium could hinder widespread use. One possible answer may be to transmute more common elements into palladium using the Hawking’s generator of cold electricity.
Fiber-Based Cold Fusion Power Cell
This is a cold fusion reactor which is highly competitive with the Patterson Power Cell. Patents have been applied for. Demonstration products could be manufactured and prototypes readied for distribution within six months after funding. International Nickel Company is considered a strong strategic partner. (Guatemala has nickel deposits.)
Light-Polarizing Photovoltaic Film
The light-polarizing photovoltaic film known as LUMELOID™ is a stretch-oriented polymer film about 0.3 microns thick which mimics photosynthesis. Light energy is absorbed in a molecular antenna which converts it to electron energy. The electron energy is then rectified by a molecular tunnel diode comprising an electron donor, an insulating space and an electron acceptor. Voltage and current is generated in the plane of the film parallel to the stretch axis.
Conventional silicon photocells are 25% efficient in theory, but in practice attain only 4-10%. The silicon concentrator cell theoretically has a 32% efficiency, but in practice has reached only 15%, and is too expensive.
LUMELOID™ has a theoretical efficiency of 72%. Initially its efficiency is expected to be comparable to existing photocells. However, because of the film’s high theoretical efficiency, with further R & D, LUMELOID™ is expected to soon surpass conventional photocell efficiency. More importantly, the low cost per watt of LUMELOID™ represents a tremendous cost decrease over presently available sources of solar energy and would facilitate its early acceptance in the energy market.
The projected cost of the basic LUMELOID™ thin film is $1.00 per square meter, and the assembly which comprises a LUMELOID™ film on a substrate with microelectronics circuitry, is about $5.00 per square meter. Its capital investment cost is about 30¢ per watt. This is a fraction of all conventional electric energy producing technologies. The capital cost of fossil fuel generation from large power plants is over $1.50 per watt, nuclear energy is more than $6.00 per watt, and present semiconductor photovoltaic devices are more than $4.00 per watt.
LUMELOID™ will be available in rolls at low cost, affording easy transportation, and any amount of power during sunlight hours by just rolling it out flat on any surface. Eventually with the development of QUENSOR™, which is like a very thin battery (see below), a combined LUMELOID™-QUENSOR™ sheet may be spread out on a roof or on the ground, and will provide electric power day and night, available on demand.
“Diad” is an acronym for donor-insulator-acceptor-device which acts as a diode. Molecular diads have been chemically synthesized. LUMELOID™ incorporates diads in a stretch-oriented electrically conductive polarized film. The linear polarizing molecule in the film acts as antennae to absorb a resolved component of the energy of the light photons in the plane of the film. Diads are essential in LUMELOID™ to convert the energized electrons to unidirectional (DC) electric power.
When two polarized films are positioned with their stretch axes perpendicular, light is almost completely absorbed. Using two crossed films with electrodes connected in series or parallel, ordered diads in LUMELOID™ enable the conversion of light to electric power at 72% theoretical efficiency. This principle was demonstrated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory by converting microwave to DC electric power using rectifying antennae at 82% efficiency.
Femto Diode Photovoltaic Glass Sheet
The LEPCON™ femto diode concept is similar in principle to LUMELOID™, which provides a technology mimicking photosynthesis, absorbing light energy with a molecular antennae structure, and rectifying the electron energy by the known phenomena called electron tunneling. In contrast to LUMELOID™, however, LEPCON™ comprises the durable materials of sub-micron metal on a glass substrate sheet. (A “femto” is one quadrillionth (10-15)).)
A device for fabricating LEPCON™ photovoltaic sheets in commercial production is called “Supersebter”, an acronym for Super Submicron Electron Beamwriter. The Supersebter utilizes 100,000 rows and 100,000 columns to position 10 billion electron emitters on a square meter sheet by a lithographic process. This process produces 10 billion electron beams simultaneously to write the nanostructure patterns of femto diodes on the sheet. A square-meter LEPCON™ photovoltaic sheet could be produced in twenty seconds at a cost of about 50¢ per watt and a lifetime expectancy of over 50 years.
LEPCON™ panels could be utilized by utility companies in solar farms. It has been calculated that LEPCON™ panels covering a 150-kilometer x 150-kilometer area in a desert region could produce over 250,000 MW of electric power, enough for most of the United States.
This successful commercial fabrication of the LEPCON™ femto diode structure should lead to many other advanced nanostructure devices. For example, computer circuitry could be miniaturized 100-fold, efficient laser lighting devices could be produced, and vast improvements could be made on high-definition 2D to 3D TV flat-panel displays. (The 1993 Alvin Marks patent on a monomolecular resist significantly increases the resolution of the nanostructures.)
Quantum High Energy Density Storage or Retrieval Device
Essentially a very thin battery, the solid-state Quantum High Energy Density Storage or Retrieval Device (QUENSOR™) has an energy density of about 1-15 kilowatt-hours/kilogram, which is comparable to gasoline, or more. A fundamentally new principle and a new method of manufacture is employed.
Electric energy is stored or retrieved from quantum dipole electric fields throughout the volume of the QUENSOR™ film. Electric energy is stored in the QUENSOR™ film by charging the dipole electric fields from an electric energy source. Electric energy is retrieved from a QUENSOR™ film by discharging the dipole electric fields and supplying the energy to a load. Electric breakdown in the film is avoided because positive and negative electric charges in the film are balanced everywhere. Busbars attached to metal layers are connected to terminals for charging or discharging the QUENSOR™ film.
A composite photovoltaic LUMELOID™ and QUENSOR™ panel may be used for the storage or retrieval of solar-electric energy day or night on demand.
Eight patents protecting the LUMELOID™, LEPCON™, and QUENSOR™ technologies have been issued, and additional patent applications have been filed.
Buried Contact Multijunction Thin Film Solar Cell
In the past, to produce high-performance solar cells, expensive high-quality solar cell material were required. This new solar cell approach produces high efficiency cells but with the use of much lower quality material than previously possible; material 100-1,000 times lower in quality than the worst presently used in commercial silicon cells. Using this approach, the major material costs in making the modules becomes the cost of the glass used in the modules.
The approach involves the deposition of a very thin layer of silicon upon the glass cover. During deposition, fluctuations are introduced in the properties of these layers to produce a multilayer structure. Three separate ideas are combined:
The first new idea is to use a multilayer structure, which provides the tolerance to the use of low quality material; material 100-1,000 times poorer than the worst used in present commercial cells. The second is using a laser grooved approach which allows correct contacting to each of the layers in the cell. The third is the automatic series interconnection of the cells which results from the laser grooving approach and greatly simplifies module fabrication, contributing to low processing costs.
High efficiency can still be obtained by this approach but with material costs not appreciably higher than the glass used in the modules. In the normal approach, material costs alone are over $2 per watt of electrical output. In the new approach, material costs are only about 10 cents per watt, about 20 times smaller. Total solar power costs are expected to be cheaper than fossil or nuclear power.
Solar Hydrogen Producer
This simple device efficiently uses all solar wavelengths to make hydrogen in abundance. A reflecting foil glued to a form (half cylinder?). A mixture of water and raw iron (powdered? granular? scrap iron?) is heated. Hydrogen gas is collected, and the pure iron oxide is a saleable product (used in paint, maybe?).
A hydrogen tank was developed by the same inventor (now deceased) of the above solar hydrogen producer that is so safe it can be punctured with rifle bullets.
This machine combines compressed air, untreated or even polluted water, and almost any combustible fuel to produce steam at any pressure or temperature. The response is instant compared with a conventional boiler taking hours to reach operating pressure and temperature. The efficiency is over 90%, which compares favorably with a conventional boiler’s efficiency of 40%. Maintenance costs, fuel consumption, and air pollution all go way down. 3500 applications have been found for super-steam technology. Electricity can be generated for 1 cent per kilowatt-hour. Super-steam technology can be scaled from the size of a one-pound coffee can to a house.
Super-steam technology could be combined with the aforementioned solar hydrogen producer and hydrogen tank for on-site renewable energy uses. Inventor is Leonard Dorsett.
Double-Exposure Flat-Plate Solar Collector
Apparently combines photo-voltaic and solar thermal collecting.
Brown Nuclear Battery
Small “nuclear” battery uses tritium to power small circuits and electrical devices for several years. Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with a half-life of 12 years. These nuclear batteries use beta emitters which are similar to devices used in smoke detectors and to illuminate wrist watches. The key approach is the methods used by the inventor to “funnel” the emitted beta particles (electrons) into the affiliated circuits so that a useable voltage is produced.
The Brown nuclear battery has many uses, especially for computer-chip applications. A very small “nuclear” battery can be used to power a computer chip or computer chip set for several years. The battery could be about the same size as the packaged chip and be mounted directly on or adjacent to the chip. Many other applications are available. The nuclear radiation consists of beta particles which are electrons and can do no harm unless the battery material is ground up and swallowed.
Hydrogen is formed by creating an underwater electrical discharge between two aluminum electrodes. Aluminum wire is fed against a rotating aluminum drum. A hydrogen-fueled 900-kilogram car runs 600 kilometers on 20 liters of water and one kilogram of aluminum.
The required high voltage can be obtained from the battery, a generator off the drive shaft, or two coils in parallel and fed from a conventional distributor.
The hydrogen gas fills a small buffer tank which in turn supplies hydrogen to the engine on demand. When the tank’s pressure exceeds a predetermined level, the electrodes are separated so that hydrogen generation is interrupted. As the pressure drops to a certain level, the aluminum wire is again fed against the aluminum drum.
Converter of Zero-Point Electromagnetic Radiation Energy to Electrical Energy
The existence of zero-point electromagnetic radiation was discovered in 1958 by Dutch physicist M. J. Sparnaay. Zero-point electromagnetic radiation is the same as the electromagnetic waves radiated from radio and television antennas except that the frequencies are random, incoherent, are present everywhere in the universe, and vary from zero cycles per second to infinity. Other names include “zero-point energy field”, “vacuum field energy”, “etheric energy field”, and “ether”.
Mr. Sparnaay had continued the experiments carried out by Hendrik B. G. Casimir in 1948 which showed the existence of a force between two uncharged parallel plates which arose from electromagnetic radiation surrounding the plates in a vacuum. This force has since been named the “Casimir effect” to honor the discoverer. (See “Casimer Effect Self-Charging Energy Cell” below.)
Mr. Sparnaay discovered that the forces acting on the plates arose from not only thermal radiation but also from another type of radiation now known as classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation. Mr. Sparnaay determined that not only did the zero point electromagnetic radiation exists in a vacuum, but also that it persisted even at a temperature of absolute zero. Because it exists in a vacuum, zero-point electromagnetic radiation is homogeneous and isotropic as well as ubiquitous.
In addition, since zero-point electromagnetic radiation does not vary, the intensity of the radiation at any frequency is proportional to the cube of that frequency. Consequently the intensity of the radiation increases without limit as the frequency increases. The result is an infinite energy density for the radiation spectrum. (See “Etheric Weather Engineering” above for additional discussion.)
The special characteristics of the zero-point electromagnetic radiation of having a virtually infinite energy density and that it is omnipresent even in outer space make it very desirable as an energy source. However, the high energy densities only exist at very high frequencies. These large energies can be collected with small antenna-like structures (frequency is inversely proportional to size). But the frequencies are so high that they are unusable for practical energy uses.
With two antennas of very slightly different sizes, the converter collects zero-point electromagnetic radiation of two very slightly different frequencies. The converter then superimposes the two frequencies which results in a far lower beat frequency. The energy contained in the beat frequency is then transformed to practical electrical power which can be made available in any location on earth or in space. Applications include transportation, heating, cooling as well as many others.
Water-Fueled Internal Combustion Engine with Garrett Electrolytic Carburetor
Henry “Dad” Garrett and his son, Charles H. Garrett, in 1935 patented and exhibited an automobile that ran on water substituted for gasoline. Actually, the fuel was hydrogen after the water was broken down by electrolysis. The only items needed to convert a gasoline-powered auto to a water burner was an electrolytic carburetor and installation of a generator of double normal capacity for the breaking down of the water. Instant starts in any weather, no fire hazards, cooler operation and plenty of power and speed were claimed.
Rather than store the inflammable hydrogen, the same process makes the gas without a storage chamber in which the flames from the motor’s cylinders might react. Water is broken down into its component gases by passage of an electric current through it from electrodes immersed in the water. Hydrogen collects at the negative pole, and oxygen collects at positive. The hydrogen is then mixed with air and introduced directly into the cylinders. For an ordinary automobile, an electrolysis chamber of about a quart in capacity is big enough.
In summary, this simple process can provide:
• Heat – through the burning of hydrogen/oxygen.
• Power for local energy generation – the explosive energy to drive a piston to drive a shaft to power a generator. The generator then charges a battery network which feeds an inverter (converts DC to AC) to run your house.
• Motive power for transport power – explosive energy drives the piston to drive your vehicle.
• Light – condoluminescence – hydrogen/oxygen exposed to phosphor-coated surfaces for light generation.
• Sound amplification – flame speakers where flame is electrostatically deflected at audio rates to produce sound. The hydrogen/oxygen mix is generated locally rather than using bottled gases such as propane, butane, etc.
Electrical generators in common use require external torque from gas, hydroelectric, and steam turbines, for example, to overcome back electromotive force. Bill Muller’s magnetic motor/generator eliminates back electromotive force. The coils are removed from the rotor and instead wrapped around powerful magnets equally spaced around the stator. Magnets are also equally spaced around the rotating disk. However, the number of rotor magnets is one more than the number of stator magnets.
A typical commercial motor involves pushing and pulling magnetically where in the Muller motor/generator only the magnetic pulling effect occurs. A perfectly balanced arrangement of the magnets results in a disk-like rotor that can be turned with no effort at all. The completely reversible result is if current is applied to the stator coils, the rotor turns. If the rotor is turned, the stator coils can generate current to be supplied to a load.
The stator coils are wrapped around cores made of inexpensive Muller-patented amorphous material which eliminates heat-producing hysteresis and eddy current losses. Because of instantaneous saturation and permeability, much less wire is needed for the stator coils which greatly reduces both ohmic resistance losses and inductance losses. No brushes are needed like in conventional direct current generators and motors which wear out. Bearing friction losses are greatly reduced by both weight reduction and using Muller’s cone-shaped magnetic bearings (patent applied for).
Maxwell Technologies Ultra-Capacitor
Since there is no heat nor waste product buildup as with electrochemical batteries, ultra-capacitors can easily last many hundreds of thousands of extremely rapid and deep charge/discharge cycles. They can supply repeated bursts of power for fractions of a second to several minutes. They are especially useful for supercharging power for accelerations or climbing. With their quick recharge capability, ultra-capacitors can easily capture regenerative braking energy, extending the range of the vehicle. For increased safety, they can be stored, assembled, maintained, and transported while completely discharged. Since the energy stored is directly related to the voltage, the amount of available energy can be easily monitored. This precision eliminates the need for sophisticated state-of-charge algorithms. Other advantages include temperature insensitivity and low maintenance.
Capacitors are inherently more capable than electrochemical batteries of withstanding quick discharges of electricity to the motor when the driver demands high acceleration by stepping on the throttle. It is conceivable that ultra-capacitors could be combined with batteries to take advantage of the best performance characteristics of both types.
Maxwell Technologies’ commercially available PowerCache ultra-capacitors pack up to 100 times the energy of conventional capacitors and can deliver ten times the power of ordinary batteries. Their ultra-capacitor is a double-layer capacitor incorporating a unique metal/carbon electrode and an advanced non-aqueous electrolytic solution. As a potential is applied across the terminals, ions migrate to the high-surface-area electrodes. The combination of available surface area and proximity to the current collector provide an ultra-high capacitance for this electrostatic process.
Power Technology Battery
Las Vegas resident Alvin Snaper (600 patents and new products) through his company, Power Technology, Inc., has developed a superior new battery with none of the drawbacks of all other types of batteries such as temperature sensitivity. It is actually a modern version of inventor Thomas Edison’s nickel-iron battery. Increasing the surface area of the electroplates by up to 1000 times greatly increases current output and allows much quicker charge/discharge rates. Different chemistry reduces the weight of the battery by 50%, reduces cost, and is much more environmentally friendly than lead.
NiMH Batteries; Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries
The best Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries are no longer on the market. Why? Because either Cobasys has no intention of ever mass producing powerful NiMH automotive packs, or they just don’t know how, even though they own the patent. The cells they displayed at the last EDTA conference were bulky at best, and certainly a million years away from the level of engineering exactitude Japanese automakers expect from their suppliers.
Essentially Matsusita took some of the information from their original, but mediocre patents and developed a functional NiMH battery that gave a range of 160 miles to the General Motors EV-1 and 110 miles to the Toyota RAV4 EV. This Panasonic M95 was also getting 1-2000 deep cycles and 100,000-150,000 miles on a battery pack. Something the oil companies and Detroit automakers don’t want on the market, despite the Fortune 500’s good mood for natural capitalism.
So now that the best NiMH battery technology for EV’s has been removed from commercial circulation, Toyota, Honda and Ford are stuck using inferior NiMH battery technology in their hybrids. Toyota has indicated it will take up to 4 years for the next generation lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery chemistry to be as reliable and affordable. Till then, it’s touch and go as Toyota can’t crank out enough hybrids off the assembly line to meet demand, especially in deliveries to corporate fleets, taxicabs and limousine services.
State-of-the art lithium-ion chemistry is in limbo at some California-based company who has managed to secure the exclusive production rights to the only Li-ion technology that really counts, roll-to-roll solid-state battery production. That’s right; no more liquid chemistry… no leakage, no over heating, no explosion, extreme light weight, easy mass production! Just like printing mylar off a printing press! Just like laminating plastic photovoltaic sheets!
Instead more conventional liquid Li-ion chemistry is being pushed feverishly. Toyota is buying out major Li-ion startups in Asia. Other Li-ion battery companies like Valence, Electrovaya, Kokam, LG Chem have attractive polymer Li-ion batteries, but they are still all based on the older liquid chemistry model, and therefore more expensive and more complicated to produce.
The chemical genius who came up with the Li-ion solid-state polymer roll-to-roll protocol is a professor at MIT who does not own his own technology. MIT owns the technology, and it is the MIT licensing office which gets to decide what companies do or do not get awarded these licensing rights. This revolutionary technology has been in limbo since 1995!
Is it because MIT is cashing checks from the Rockefeller Bros. and the Ford Foundation? Is it pure incompetence? Is it a repeat of the cold fusion debacle Gene Mallove wrote about in his book “Fire from Ice”? It’s hard to tell as everyone involved is terrified to talk about it openly, which is why I am not mentioning any names. Frequent visitors to the Electrifying Times website know exactly who I am talking about!
My suspicion is that certain forces within the military, and now Homeland Security, do not want solid-state roll-to-roll Li-ion batteries from entering the civilian marketplace, the same way you can’t buy Green, a special duct tape developed for Groton Electric Boat workers to strap metal parts, so strong it instantly bonds to the skin, requiring surgery if accidentally touched.
What a poor boy to do who wants to save the planet if the powers-that-be won’t give him the affordable batteries he needs to make a 0 to 60 in under 3 seconds EV with a 200-mile range on a single charge? That‘s the question we should all be asking ourselves instead of lamenting about who killed the electric car!
The batteries are there, being manufactured for military applications all over Connecticut! If you want plug-in hybrids and 100% pure EVs so you don’t ever use a drop of gasoline again, with equal to if not better performance than any liquid fuel engines, then ask yourself why MIT, since 1994, has done very little to get their solid-state Li-ion roll-to-roll battery patents into production. Don’t follow the money; follow the trail of misappropriated and shelved patents.
Congress needs to put back into question the entire review process of patent law, and its consequences on environmental health, by imposing strict fines to whoever is caught buying patents for the sole purpose of keeping its protocol out of commercial circulation. (Excerpted from “Who Killed Better Batteries?” by Remy Chevalier, Electrifying Times, spring-summer 2006, Vol. 10, No. 1, http://www.electrifyingtimes.com.)
(Erik Masen adds more details in his “Suppression of Quantum Leap Inventors” Electrifying Times, 2007, Vol. 10, No. 2)
Chevron-Texaco bought into a Detroit company, Stanford Ovshinsky’s Energy Conversion Devices (ECD), and changed their name to Cobasys. ECD held the original patents on nickel metal hydride battery technology, but never successfully marketed a turnkey NiMH battery for major markets. They did sell a considerable amount of NiMH batteries to GM for the EV1. Panasonic came along and refined this NiMH battery technology into an indestructible battery of higher energy density and longer life. That enabled the Toyota RAV4 EV (electric vehicle) to get 80-120 miles out of a battery cycle, and get over 100,000 miles of battery life out of this improved NiMH battery. ECD-Cobasys filed a lawsuit of patent infringement against Panasonic and won. This action essentially shutdown the import and use of the Panasonic M95 NiMH battery that was so successful in making EV’s practical for the GM EV1, Ford Ranger Electric PU, and the Toyota RAV4 EV. As a result the proven very popular M95 90-ampere-hour NiMH is not for sale in the United States. ECD-Cobasys also put heavy licensing fees and restrictions on the NiMH battery used in the Toyota’s present hybrid fleet.
(Reported by Remy Chevalier)
Ed Baldwin’s Super-Capacitor
Similar in electrical function to the Ukrainian battery, Ed Baldwin’s solid-state multi-layered “super-capacitor” has a very high dielectric constant. It is believed ultimately capable of ten times the electrical energy storage capacity per pound of lead-acid batteries.
Yasunori Takahashi’s Ultra-Capacitor
The Takahashi ultra-capacitor is rated at approximately 20 farads at 25 volts in a volume of about one cubic centimeter.
Incorporates permanent magnets which provide the drive torque by pulling rotor and stator poles together with an electromagnetic opposed excitation input pulsation used to weaken that magnetic pull to allow the poles to separate. Power output claimed to be 3 times power input.
Inventor: Brian Borrowdale (deceased)
90+ MPG Carburetor; Atomic Isotope Generator
John Richardson (deceased) invented a “carburetor improvement/adjustment mechanism” which enabled autos to achieve 90 to 100 miles per gallon of gasoline. Richardson also invented an “atomic isotope generator”, about the size of a washing machine, which could electrify a 5,000 sq. ft. house or building for over 100 years at a minimal up-front cost. Vicious threats from big business to his life and his family persuaded Richardson to hide the prototypes and to stop further work. (Source: http://center-for-natural-health.com/articles/richardson.html)
WIN Zero Point Electrical Energy Converter
Extracts AC current with an output power over input power gain as high as 268.6%. It generates electricity by collecting electrons between E-dam cermets in a vacuum. A charge of electrons is oscillated in a tank circuit, and energy is collected or added to that charge from the vacuum. The mechanism is believed to be the Casimer effect. Solid-state with no moving parts and no size restrictions, individual units can be built to power a 15-kilowatt home or a 20-megawatt arc furnace without outside energy input. Inventor is Wingate Lambertson (deceased).
Conversion of Aluminum Internal Combustion Engine to Magnetic Motor
Heads replaced with magnet arrangement so that the vehicle doesn’t need fuel nor battery recharging. Two-inch square Chinese super-magnets are embedded in the piston heads. Same-size magnets are embedded on outside of disks mounted on shaft, one magnet to each cylinder. A toothed gearwheel mounted on the front end of the shaft is linked by a chain drive to a gearwheel on the crankshaft. An electric motor is mounted on the block to turn the crankshaft. As crankshaft rotates, when each piston is up closest to top of the cylinder, its matching magnet is also at its angular point closest to the head. The two opposing south poles repel each other with 1,000 lb. of force. (This compares with the approximately 250 lb. of force on the piston head in a gasoline engine.)
The engine would still need oil changes every 50,000 to 80,000 miles. Because it runs cool, the block could be made of hard plastic which ought to be of cheaper material and easier to mold and machine than aluminum. A constant-speed motor, it would require a continuously variable transmission in order to power a vehicle. If the electric motor is replaced with a Muller magnetic motor (see above), the combined energy conversion gain is projected to be about 300.
Inventor: Brian Borrowdale (deceased)
Gravito Magnetic Device
The gravito magnetic device (GMD), also known as the David Hamel machine, is a cheap version of the Searl effect generator (SEG) (see above) that can be built with off-the-shelf components. The GMD has magnets attached to radial spokes or arms that are jointed. These magnets are floated in a magnetic housing and when properly biased, continue to spin, gaining momentum and speed with each rotation and achieving the same tremendous electrostatic buildup on the outside rim as the SEG.
The parts inside the GMD are configured in such a way as to promote an enclosed constant variation of opposing magnetic fields. In the resting state, the moving cones are balanced and stabilized in a magnetic field repulsion, like a magnetic bearing. The startup of the GMD is initiated by lowering a magnet at the center top of the shell, inside the shell, towards the momentarily magnetically balanced moving cones.
As the center magnet, which opposes the one attached at the center of the upper moving cone, is lowered inside the GMD, it forces the upper cone to move sideways, shifting the magnetic balance between the cones inside the GMD. The cones stay offset to each other for a short while and then plasma-like energy starts to build up around the GMD. This energy built up creates a shift of colors from red-orange to light blue and then white. Following this effect the GMD starts to lose weight and quickly generates an upper lift in a greater ratio than its total weight.
It should be emphasized that the power generated, surrounding the GMD, is extremely powerful and radiates, causing interruptions of electron flow in normal electrical systems, i.e. lights, cars, transformers, and interferes with electromagnetic transmissions. So it is without saying that this machine has to be operated with serious caution when completed and activated. However, if a control system is in place, it is easy to stop its effect. One of the main purposes of GMD research is to understand the effects of enclosed opposing magnetic fields that have varying vector angles.
The GMD is potentially a versatile, useful technology which also generates antigravity. The GMD has a powerful upward thrust causing it to rise in the air in a manner similar to a Searl effect generator (see above). (The first assembled model after two hours of increasing spin velocity unexpectedly crashed through the roof and escaped.) When the inner workings of what causes the secondary electrogravitational fields are understood, it is probable that various devices can be created providing plentiful energy of different types.
It should be noted that all building materials for the GMD are readily available almost anywhere in the world, and the cost is relatively cheap. A lot of hand work is required but nothing that is unreasonably unattainable. No special machining or parts are required. Only patience and devotion is needed.
Casimer Effect Self-Charging Energy Cell
In the above article on etheric weather engineering, the force of gravity is described as the ether weakly pushing two objects such as a book and the earth into each other’s shadow. Gravity can also be thought of as the long-range version of the Casimer effect. The Casimer effect predicts that two metal plates close together will attract each other.
Consider the plates set at a certain distance apart. In the space between the plates, only those ether (vacuum) field fluctuations for which a whole number of half-waves just spans the distance can exist, just like waves formed by shaking a rope tied at both ends. Outside the plates, the fluctuations can have many more values because there is space. The number of modes outside the plates, all of which carry energy and momentum, is greater than those inside. This imbalance PUSHES THE PLATES TOGETHER.
The proprietary Casimer effect self-charging energy cell contains many extremely thin layers of carbon, magnesium, chromium oxide, and a couple of other elements and compounds. The result is analogous to a boat that has some rather large leaks. More water pours into the boat as fast as water is bailed out. Likewise, as electromagnetic energy is drawn out of the Casimer effect self-charging energy cell when inserted in an electrical circuit, energy is drawn in from the surrounding ether. Physically and functionally, the Casimer effect energy cell is like a solid-state battery that recharges itself with some valuable features such as simplicity and compactness.
Switched Reluctance Motor
The switched reluctance motor is a motor design that has been around for many decades but has never been commercialized. The inventor of the Casimer effect self-charging energy cell is also developing an efficient commercial version of the switched reluctance motor specifically designed with modern switching components. The intended end use is for powering electric vehicles. The switched reluctance motor has the key advantages of ease of manufacture, simplicity, and allowing complete vehicle motion control. No claims are being made that it is capable of over-unity power conversion.
Most self-powered electric vehicle power train concepts involve combining an over-unity motor (to extend the range between battery charges) with an on-board battery charger and a pack of batteries or super-capacitors. The Casimer effect self-charging energy cell offers some important advantages such as much simpler mounting of one to several battery-like cells in the vehicle’s engine compartment and greatly increased maintainability and dependability. With the cells’ self-charging capability, the efficiency of the vehicle’s electric motor thus becomes less of an issue. Electric motor features such as controllability, manufacturing cost, simplicity, and reliability can thus be given much greater consideration.
This particular self-powered electric vehicle power train combination may be the best one. If plugged into the electric grid while parked in the owner’s garage, the revenue from running the electric meter backwards could eventually pay for the vehicle’s purchase cost.
An over-unity energy converter claimed to have a gain of up to several times of shaft rotational power over electrical input power, the super-efficient “perm-mag” motor generates 1 horsepower per pound of weight. Used in a self-powered electric vehicle, a 50-pound, 50-horsepower electric motor is equivalent to a 250-horsepower gasoline-fueled engine.
The perm-mag motor’s inventor, Ronald Brandt, has successfully demonstrated a 10-pound, 10-horsepower prototype. Further research is expected to lead to a substantial increase in energy conversion gain over the reported gain of 400%. A 50-pound, 50-horsepower model (equivalent to a 250-horsepower gasoline-fueled engine) is currently being mounted in a Chrysler New Yorker for testing. Its companion controller, which is required to complete the resonant circuit for achieving over-unity gain, has been designed. It is not known yet whether a separate on-board battery charger will still be needed for a completely self-powered electric vehicle.
It should be noted that just because a motor can produce more mechanical power than its electrical input power does not necessarily mean that it is suitable for powering an electric vehicle. An electric vehicle motor ideally should have a number of other characteristics such as reversibility, complete variable power control, complete variable speed control, braking, and stepping. It is understood that the perm-mag motor meets all performance requirements for powering electric vehicles. It is not known how the perm-mag motor specifically compares with other types of over-unity motors.
Other Over-Unity Magnetic Motors
There are several other types of magnetic motors claimed to have over-unity energy conversion gain such as the ones that have been developed by Aspden, Reed, Watson, Bergman, Johnson, Labine, Tewari, and Marinov. For example, Teruo Kawai of Tokyo, Japan recently obtained U.S. Patent 5,436,518 for his “Motive Power Generating Device”. The patent’s key statement is as follows: “Electric power of 19.55 watts was applied to the electromagnets at 17 volts and 1.15 amperes. … an output of 62.16 watt was obtained.” Dividing the output power by the input power yields an efficiency of 318%. However, as stated above for the perm-mag motor, such motors may not necessarily have all the characteristics needed for powering electric vehicles. Power gain measurements also can be misleading.
Protium H+ Stoichiometric Hydrogen Gas Generator
The pre-production prototype Protium H+ stoichiometric hydrogen gas generator (patent pending) was optimized to generate H+ @ 25 liters per minute continuous without electrolytic chemicals. Inventor is David Yurth.
Closed-Loop Phase-Change Gas System
The proof-of-concept prototype was designed to produce 25 KW continuous output based on Langmuir reactor core thermal source, rotary compression engine, and Protium H+ input apparatus without extrinsic fuel consumption. Inventor is David Yurth.
Environmental Heat Engines
Las Vegas inventor Robert Stewart developed his “Stewart Cycle” engine for transportation vehicles, electricity generators, and large-scale water lifters. His efficient and pollution-free engine uses ambient heat to expand a working fluid such as Freon or ammonia and move pistons through sealed chambers. His patent is for Vapor Actuated Power Generating Device, No. 4,033,136.
A possibly more up-to-date version is Ralph J. Lagow’s Method of Generating Power from a Vapor, Patent No. 4,693,087. Ken Rauen’s Rauen cycle and Superclassical cycle engines also expand working fluids with environmental heat to provide useful net mechanical power.
Mr. Stewart claimed that his fuel-less engine could lift Colorado River water from below Hoover Dam back up into Lake Mead, thereby doubling Hoover Dam’s output of electricity. He also proposed lifting water from the Columbia River into the Colorado River via a canal, generating electricity as the water flowed back downhill.
Problem: Every century or two the sun aims towards the earth a huge coronal mass ejection causing an electromagnetic storm intense enough to blow out numerous inductive transformers. Power grids could go down for months. But nuclear reactor cooling pumps can only rely on diesel generators for at most a few days. Blackout-crippled refineries would not be able to supply diesel fuel for several months. Without cooling pumps, nuclear reactors and spent fuel storage pools would overheat – releasing catastrophic radiation ala Chernobyl and Fukushima.
Solution: Efficient and pollution-free environmental heat engines absorb ambient heat to expand a working fluid such as Freon or ammonia which pushes pistons through sealed chambers. An environmental heat engine can utilize a nuclear reactor’s own natural low-grade heat to drive an auxiliary generator. The reactor’s cooling pumps can be powered with the generator’s electricity until the local power grid is eventually restored.
Washington, DC area magnetometer readings during the few weeks of 2012 have measured a weakening by a few percentage points of the Earth’s magnetic field. Continued weakening extrapolates to a near zero magnetic field by summer of 2012. All of the planet’s power grids would no longer be protected from electromagnetic surges induced by unusually strong coronal mass ejections.
Robert Stewart’s “Stewart Cycle” engine, Vapor Actuated Power Generating Device, Patent No. 4,033,136; Ralph J. Lagow’s Method of Generating Power from a Vapor, Patent No. 4,693,087; Ken Rauen’s Rauen cycle and Superclassical cycle engines; and George Wiseman’s Wise cycle.
Gary Vesperman has a videotape and drawings of deceased Las Vegas inventor Robert Stewart’s low-temperature phase-change engine which relies on the same basic principle but seems to be a different design.
Inventors: Robert Stewart, Ralph J. Lagow, Ken Rauen, and
George Wiseman, Oroville, Washington, USA eagle-research.com
Closed-Cycle Freon/Rotary Turbine
DiMatt Industries’s DiMatt Wankel Generator integrates a Freon-based wankel engine and generator system. The system relies on the extremely high expansion coefficient demonstrated by certain Freon formulations to drive the internal rotary piston system embodied by the Wankel. This system has been shown to produce 40-80 brake horsepower (as tested on a fully instrumented dynamometer) without consuming fuel or producing any exhaust.
The engineering design specifications, patent application and underlying component patents have been developed for the construction and testing of a transportation platform which relies on a closed-cycle Freon/rotary turbine design to supply power to electric motors with no consumption of fuel and no emissions. Its efficiency is lower in colder temperatures. Inventor is Matt Schadeck.
Multi-chambered Rotary Compression Engine
The proof-of-concept prototype was designed to produce 25 KW continuous output based on input from (a) air, (b) phase change gases, (c) saturated steam, and (d) other fluids. Inventor is David Yurth.
Conical Vortex Heat Exchange Engine
The proof-of-concept prototype was designed to produce 25 KW continuous output based on truncated conical vortex engine design concepts without consumption of extrinsic fuel. Inventor is David Yurth.
Clem Over-Unity Vegetable Oil Engine
Richard Clem was a heavy equipment operator who had noticed that a hot asphalt sprayer would continue to run for up to an hour even after the power was turned off! So he built a modified version as a 200-pound engine which ran on vegetable oil at 300 degrees and was started by a 12-volt battery. The heat is internally generated by the engine. During a nine-day test conducted by Bendix Corporation engineers, the engine in its self-running mode consistently generated 350 horsepower into a dynamometer. The engine is constructed from off-the-shelf components except for a hollow shaft and a custom cone with enclosed spiral channels.
If the automobile industry adopts the Clem over-unity engine, motorists could change its eight gallons of vegetable oil only every 150,000 miles and never buy any gasoline. To illustrate the engine’s durability, the only working model of the Clem engine has been continually running on his son’s farm for several years.
Combining the Clem over-unity engine with the hydrosonic pump could provide distilled ocean water as well as hot water for space heating, kitchens, and bathrooms at no energy cost.
The Clem over-unity vegetable-oil engine is not patented. It may be fairly straightforward to set up a small machine shop for manufacturing hollow shafts and cones.
Thin-Film Electrolytic Cells
A number of seasoned technology integrators have developed thin-film energy storage technologies which hold considerable promise. Dr. George Miley, Dr. Robert Hockaday and others have developed thin film technologies with energy densities exceeding 250-400 watt hours per kilogram. Dr. Miley’s invention is illustrative. Using a flowing pack-bed type electrolytic cell with 1-molar LiSO4 in light water, 1mm plastic beads with a very thin [500-1,000 angstrom] film of metal [nickel, palladium, titanium] are employed. A special sputtering technique is used to spray the metals onto the surface of the beads. With 2-3 volts of electrical power and 1.5 milliamperes of current, the single film experiments have shown the material to produce more than 10 times as much output power as input. The input power is no more than 0.01 watts while .5 watt of heat is produced.
It is likely that the physics involved in this reaction involve the release of energy as a by-product of nuclear transmutation. Dr. Miley has written, “The key finding from these studies has been the observation of a large array of “new” elements (i.e., different from the original bead coating), many with significant deviations from natural isotopic compositions, after the run.
Great care has been made to ensure that these elements are distinguished from isotopic impurities by use of a “clean cell” with high purity components and electrolytes, in addition to the pre-and post-run analyses. Even low-energy radiation was detected from the bead days after each experiment. Applications to space power, providing a 1-kilowatt cell with only 500 cubic centimeters of active electrode is predicted.” Note that this particular invention, with its large over-unity energy yield, was awarded a NERI grant by the DOE. At the insistent urging of the American Physical Society and representatives from MIT and other universities whose laboratories are currently engaged in high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor research, Secretary Richardson eventually withdrew the grant.
The tangle-footed Department of Energy actively discourages the development of new sources of energy, presumably to appease and protect the oil, uranium and coal companies. The U.S. Patent Office has unfairly classified secret over 5000 energy patents. Luckless energy inventors then risk 20 years in prison if they work on, sell, or publicize their energy invention – often created at great personal sacrifice.
Ceramic Electrodynamic Wafer
An alpha-emitter isotope is combined with a proprietary thin film to produce a homogeneous crystalline material on an inert substrate. When subjected to a continuous magnetic field flux, the ions emitted by the isotopic material can be collected and rectified to perform work functions. This concept has already been in testing and demonstration for five years. Optimization of this technique is the objective of this project. The physics of this device is based on the model of fine scale interactions described in the Y-bias and angularity model. Inventor is David Yurth.
Super-conductive Manganite Substrates
A substrate comprised of an alpha-emitter isotope intercalated with Manganite crystalline materials is super-compressed to create room temperature super-conductive substrate materials. This concept has already been demonstrated in proof-of-concept prototypes by MIT and others. The physics is based on the model of fine scale interactions described in the Y-bias and angularity model. Inventor is David Yurth.
Thin Film Power Generating Disks
An alpha-emitter isotope is combined with a proprietary thin film applied to a disk [same form factor and size as a conventional CD-ROM disk] which has been treated to produce a substrate with room-temperature super-conductive properties. The physics is based on the model of fine scale interactions described in the Y-bias and angularity model. Inventor is David Yurth.
Casimir-Layered Electrodynamic Generator
A Casimir array consisting of stacked CD-ROM type disks coated with alpha-emitter isotopic thin film, which have been super-compressed to provide room temperature super-conductivity, is proposed. Controlled oscillation of the stack will produce ion flow which can be rectified and used. The physics is based on the model of fine scale interactions described in the Y-bias and angularity model. Inventor is David Yurth.
Self-Recharging Gel Cells
Nano-particulated alpha-emitter isotope materials are intercalated with conventional electrolytic materials in the presence of advanced anodic materials in a gel cell environment to produce self-recharging energy generating cells. The physics is based on the model of fine scale interactions described in the Y-bias and angularity model. Inventor is David Yurth.
Self-Recharging Capacitive Discharge Thermal Generator
Optimized ceramet devices are integrated with other highly capacitive elements in the presence of D2O to produce self-recharging high-density charge cluster emissions as a means to thermally charge high density anodic targets. The heat is used to support several types of thermal exchange-based apparatus. The physics is based on the model of fine scale interactions described in the Y-bias and angularity model. Inventor is David Yurth.
Amplified Ionization Filtration Technologies
Alpha-emitter isotopic materials are deposited on the surfaces of permanently magnetized metallic foam of proprietary design to amplify ionization energies exhibited by molecules of air and fuels as they are fed to power various kinds of combustion apparatus. Each apparatus type is accommodated and tested separately using the common ionization filtration technique in varying form factors. The physics is based on the model of fine scale interactions described in the Y-bias and angularity model. Inventor is David Yurth.
Induction Coil Coating Increases Generator Output by One-Third
This invention significantly improves generator performance – copied below from inventor David Yurth’s email with the proprietary details omitted:
… this means that if you have (deleted) present in any DC interaction, you can reduce e- transport by as much as 65% – 80%, depending on architecture and other variables. (deleted) is not able by itself to constitute a self-sustaining electron source capable of performing significant work until the surface area geometries are reduced below the nano-scale. Nevertheless, we have demonstrated in our lab that when the induction coil of a common automobile alternator is coated with (deleted) impregnated in an epoxy resin the amount of watts output at the generator is increased by 35%-38%.
The practical implications of this finding are profound – it means, for example, that if all generators used to produce power were (deleted) impregnated using this simple application, the amount of fuel required to generate electrical power to the grid could be reduced by 1/3.
One application is to increase the output of wind turbine generators by about a third.
Wind Turbine Conversion
This invention radically changes, for the better, wind turbine design – copied below from inventor David Yurth’s email with the proprietary details omitted:
When a single 1.5-megawatts wind turbine is converted to our design, the gearbox is deleted and so is the brake mechanism. The propeller blades are redesigned to operate at wind speeds in excess of 60 mph, which is four times faster than the average horizontal axis wind turbine is designed for. We used an adaptation of our (deleted) tied to 10 such turbines that will provide 5 megawatts of continuous output power when the wind is not blowing and during the night time. The entire system will deliver up to 15 megawatts in optimum wind conditions. So by being able to deliver on demand during peak hours, when the wind is NOT blowing, this integrated system would qualify for long-term power production contracts on a par with coal and gas fired systems. The installed cost for such a system is estimated at about $1,100 per kilowatt of installed capacity.
The elimination of the gear box and brake, coupled with the modification in the drive line system would reduce not only installed cost by more than 60% but would also reduce maintenance costs by as much as 90%. When no offset reserve has to be created to support the five-year replacement cost of the gearbox and brake system, the numbers related to power output vs. cost input become extremely attractive. Perhaps more importantly, the real efficiency of the system is much higher than a conventional system because it becomes in effect a highly efficient heat exchange engine rather than simply a wind energy conversion unit.
We know how to do this and could do it immediately if the resources were made available. Scaled down prototyping based on the incremental R&D model we described to (deleted) in earlier sends would make this a manageable and cost effective undertaking with world-wide applications. For your consideration…
Wireless Power and Free Energy from Ambient
Nikola Tesla’s “Magnifying Transmitter”, built in 1895 at Wardencliff on New York’s Long Island, has been ignored and disdained. In recent years it has received new attention for its potential to power civilization with radio-broadcast electricity, possibly even without fuel.
In 1981 Robert Golka built a prototype high-powered energy tower which may have been similar to Tesla’s wireless energy tower.
N-1 Homopolar Generator
Bruce DePalma invented the homopolar electricity generator, also called the “N-Machine”, that could provide cheap, inexhaustible, self-sustaining and non-polluting energy. The N-Machine uses principles that flout conventional physics and are still not fully understood. A 100-kilowatt N-1 homopolar generator prototype sat in his garage. It could power his whole house. But DePalma was afraid to turn it on for fear the U.S. Government may confiscate it.
Method and Apparatus for Splitting Water Molecules
Andrija Puharich (see http://www.andrijapuharich.org/) was granted U.S. Patent No. 4,394,230 for a “Method and Apparatus for Splitting Water Molecules.” This method would reportedly split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen with a net energy gain, and is essentially a perpetual energy device that many believe violates the first law of thermodynamics. Other methods of splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen with net energy gain have been invented by Daniel Dingel, Professor Kanarev, Ken Rasmussen and his associates, Bob Boyce, Stanley A. Meyer, and Frank Roberts
Motionless Electromagnetic Generator
In March 2002, Stephen L. Patrick, Thomas E. Bearden, James C. Hayes, Kenneth D. Moore, and James L. Kenny received U.S. Patent No. 6,362,718 for the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator (MEG), a scalar energy device that produces over-unity (AKA “Free Energy”). In conventional terms, the device has a Coefficient of Performance (COP) of 5.0.
Tom Bearden offers this brief description of how the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator works:
First the MEG uses a proven technique (the Aharonov-Bohm effect) which the nanocrystalline core furnishes freely. Recall again that memory characteristics of materials is one thing (from Prigogine) that allows direct and intentional violation of the second law of thermodynamics.
This free initiation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in turn engineers the surrounding vacuum outside the core, by adding extra energy density to it in the form of a curl-free A-potential. Sharp perturbation (the rise time and decay time) of the input pulses that perturb the core-confined B-field, also perturb that section of the A-potential still in the core, so that a disturbance of dA/dt passes outside the core and on outward into the external altered vacuum with its extra energy.
There the equation dA/dt = – E applies, and so in the external activated space real E-field energy pulses are formed which radiate back into the MEG core area due to the minus sign. This means they travel in opposite direction to the outward-traveling perturbation dA/dt.
Hence this shows the receipt by the MEG of excess electromagnetic energy freely transmitted back into it from the external altered space, which means that the MEG gets considerable excess E-field energy input from the surrounding vacuum. By adjusting perturbation rise times, etc., one can adjust the magnitude of the E-field energy pulses returned to the MEG from the external vacuum environment. Thus the MEG is an asymmetric Maxwellian system of the kind arbitrarily discarded by Lorentz in 1892, and still arbitrarily discarded by present EE departments, professors, and textbooks.
Comprised of strong magnets, coils, nanocrystalline cores, and a controller unit with the electronics, the MEG would be able to power an electric vehicle without battery recharging by the power grid.
For a detailed explanation (including clear drawings) of how the MEG works, see Dr. Bearden’s paper “Engineering the Active Vacuum: On the Asymmetrical Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Magnetic Vector Potential A vs. Magnetic Field B,”. This paper is available at the link http://www.cheniere.org/techpapers/On%20the%20Aharonov-Bohm%20Effect1.doc.
In that paper, Dr. Bearden points out that electrical engineers – and even the usual physicist – are unaware of how an electrical circuit is actually “powered”. For an explanation and a diagram showing (1) where the energy pouring from the generator terminals actually comes from and how, and (2) why the normal electromagnetic systems self-enforce COP<1.0 by killing their own source of this free energy flow faster than they power their loads, see Figure 2, Operation of a Symmetrical Electrical Power System, in the foregoing paper.
Note that there are more than 20,000 papers in the hard literature on the Aharonov-Bohm effect used by the MEG, and that Aharonov-Bohm effect is quite well proven in physics, both theoretically and experimentally. But the effect does not even exist in the electrical engineering model! Since the MEG is deliberately designed to use that effect, the operation of the MEG can only be understood by one who understands the Aharonov-Bohm effect, its generalization to the Berry phase, and the further generalization to the geometric phase. Specifically, any electrical engineer – using only mainstream electrical engineering theory – can not and will not be able to understand the MEG’s operation.
There are several sources of the special nanocrystalline cores which contain the "B" field needed to effectively operate the MEG. Dr. Bearden reports in http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/020504.htm that the nanocrystalline cores originally were purchased as Metglas amorphous alloys from the former Division of Honeywell that made them. He believes that Honeywell actually got them from India. That Division of Honeywell was just about demolished by General Electric (GE) in its sudden attempted buyout of Honeywell (vetoed by the European community). GE suddenly moved it across country, wiping out half its staff and scientists, etc. Then GE withdrew. With the Division in shambles, Honeywell then sold it off to Hitachi. He doesn't know what's happened since then
(Sources: http://jnaudin.free.fr/meg/megv21.htm, http://peswiki.com/index.php/Site:LRP:Motionless Electromagnetic Generator, and http://peswiki.com/index.php/Site:LRP:The Suppression of the M.E.G. by General Electric. For additional information, order Dr. Bearden’s books and videos from http://www.cheneire.org.)
Richardson Fuel-Less Electrical Generator
Two pairs of electromagnets warp permanent bar magnet’s magnetic fields back and forth across output field coils to induce a DC output voltage. Over-unity electrical energy conversion gain is achieved – the magnitude of which is unknown. This device requires additional resonant circuit components and appears to be a potentially robust generator of electricity. US Patent No. 4,077,001 for Electromagnetic Convertor with Stationary Variable-Reluctance Members. Inventor is Frank Richardson (deceased). Dr. Thomas Bearden’s motionless electromagnetic generator (see above) is based on the same principle.
Richardson Blade-Less Tesla-Type Steam Turbine
Frank Richardson also developed a blade-less Tesla-type steam turbine. The turbine has a closed-loop cycle which he claimed is far more efficient than the electric motor in terms of converting electrical energy into rotational energy for application to a vehicle’s drive wheels. The water is heated with radio frequencies like a microwave oven into steam which is then forced through two disks in sequence. The two disks are perforated in such a manner as to prevent cavitation (bubbles) even at high rotational velocity. Since steam offers a 1,000-to-1 expansion ratio compared with gasoline’s expansion ratio of approximately 300 to 1, the turbine is extremely powerful. An 18-inch diameter prototype’s output power was measured at approximately 1,000 horsepower. The electricity for the water heater came from the aforementioned Richardson fuel-less electrical generator.
Combining a blade-less steam turbine with his electrical generator, Richardson had built a self-powered modified beetle-shaped Volkswagen automobile which he drove around during the early 1970’s without bothering with refueling at gas stations, tune-ups, oil changes, etc.
Hendershot Magnetic Motor
During the late 1920's Lester J. Hendershot, while working on a new type of aviation compass, stumbled across a method of generating energy. Hendershot, while attempting to establish a true magnetic north compass, found that by cutting the same line of magnetic force north and south, he had an indicator of the true north and that by cutting the magnetic field east and west, he could develop a rotary motion. He wove together a number of flat coils of wire and placed stainless steel rings, sticks of carbon and permanent magnets in various positions as an experiment. Based on this principle, after two years of trial and error, he built a magnetic motor that would self-rotate, to his surprise, at a constant speed of 1800 rpm while producing 45 horsepower.
Hendershot changed directions and decided to build a generator on the same principle, after deducing that a magnetically-powered motor was not as practical as a magnetically-powered generator. Hendershot had discovered that the Earth’s rotating magnetic field could be used to provide power to motors and generators, much like Nikola Tesla’s discovery that the Earth was a huge capacitor, capable of providing significant amounts of electrical power. Simplified, Hendershot believed that if one were to cut the lines of force of the Earth’s magnetic field, one could harness this to provide direct power to generators and motors. Nikola Tesla attempted to do just that, when he built his “magnifying transformer” at Shoreham, Long Island, NY.
To read the first hand accounts of Hendershot’s historical encounters, see the following research links:
In 1961 Dr. Ed Skilling, from Columbia University, successfully replicated and tested a Hendershot free energy device, out of which he got 300 watts. Skilling had been associated with Hendershot and learned of the device through him. The generator was self-resonant at 500 kHz.
Motive Power Generating Device
The key statement of Teruo Kawai’s US Patent 5,436,518 for his “Motive Power Generating Device” is as follows: “Electric power of 19.55 watts was applied to the electromagnets at 17 volts and 1.15 amperes. … an output of 62.16 watt was obtained.” Dividing the output power by the input power yields a coefficient of performance of 3.19.
IPMS-Kiev and Arzamas-16: Super Magnets
The evolution of the Soviet view of the material world was reflected in the formulation of a new model of nonlinear quantum mechanics as an implicit function of consciousness. For instance, water is more than just H20. Experiments prove water can be affected in measurable ways by subtle influences such as music or whether a person's thoughts are hate-filled or life-enhancing. A more correct understanding of materials has thus enabled super magnets to be developed.
In conjunction with research jointly conducted at the highly secretive laboratories at Arzamas-16 in Khazakstan, IPMS-Kiev has developed a family of magnets with energy characteristics equal to or exceeding those of the best conventional iron-boron-neodymium types, but with the all-important feature that they operate with equal or greater efficiency at extremely high temperatures, up to 250 degrees centigrade. These magnets are so powerful that they have been successfully used to conduct extensive research in a perpetual zero gravity environment. All these experiments have been performed without the use of cryogenics.
(Source: David G. Yurth, The Anthropos Files: Tales of Quantum Physics from Another World – 2nd Edition, 2007)
Searl Effect Generator
The Searl effect generator (SEG) can be used to charge the batteries in a self-powered electric vehicle. A solid-state device, the heart of an SEG is a series of three concentric magnetic rings with magnetic rollers going around the rings. Both the rollers and rings are comprised of four layers of titanium, iron, nylon, and neodymium.
The magnetic fields impressed on the rollers have both AC and DC components. The AC component is for floating the rollers so they don’t touch the rings. The DC component is to prevent them from flying off. The innermost set contains a minimum of 12 rollers for the same reason that a linear motor will not operate with less than 12 phases.
The inner set of rollers travel around at 250 miles per hour, the middle set travels at approximately 600 miles per hour, and the outer set at approximately 1500 miles per hour. Hundreds of millions of volts are generated the energy of which is picked up by brushes positioned all around the outside set of rollers.
An SEG also creates an anti-gravity field. An uncontrolled SEG will rise about 50 feet as the rollers increase speed, emit a light blue halo which indicates energy is being extracted from the ether, and then shoot up into the sky gaining speed, never to be seen again. At least one roof has been holed by an SEG. The friction-less rollers can be prevented from reaching the critical velocity that produces lift by use of a “governor”, either mechanical or electronic.
An SEG can be easily controlled by immersing it in an electromagnetic wave field the frequency of which is a harmonic of the SEG’s primary frequency. While in resonance, the magnetic poles of the rollers reach a unification state, and they stop moving.
The inventor has built and flown a small “inverse gravity” vehicle. A flying saucer-like SEG-powered aircraft about the size of a bus is currently being built in England by a private group.
The inventor for some years independently powered his house off the power grid with a home-sized electrical generator version of the SEG. A householder could set up a 45 x 45-cm unit and generate an output of 11 kilowatts of free electrical power.
Oddly, a house powered by an SEG has been observed to have greater healing powers than conventionally electric powered houses. The healing effect is claimed to be due to the electrons zapping the occupants, taking away pain and returning blood more quickly to damaged tissue. The SEG would also help combat asthma, bronchitis, hay fever and lung complaints due to the increased supply of oxygen in the body. Conventional methods of electric power do not pump out electrons which results in tired eyes and a tired brain.
The SEG's negative charge also means that dust stays in the carpet instead of floating in the air. This is similar in action to negative ion generators sometimes sold as air fresheners.
Two Russian scientists replicated the Searl effect generator and vindicated all of these somewhat unusual claims. See their paper “Experimental Research of the Magnetic-Gravity Effects”,
V. V. Roschin and S. M. Godin, Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Science, Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow 127412, Russia.
At one time, a German power company reportedly considered replacing a nuclear power station with eight fuel-less SEGs costing a total of about $4.5 million and generating a total of 240 megawatts with no pollution.
Noble Gas Plasma Engine
Joseph Papp was granted US Patent #3,670,494 for his “Noble Gas Plasma Engine”. A mixture of
recycled inert gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon) is exposed to a high-voltage discharge in a sealed cylinder with a piston. The spark causes the gases to expand violently though no combustion occurs. Mechanical energy is delivered by the piston's displacement. The gases immediately collapse to their original density, and the cycle is repeated. After several thousand hours the gases lose their elasticity and are replaced. The operating cost is 15 cents an hour.
The first prototype was a simple 90-horsepower Volvo engine with upper end modifications. Attaching the Volvo pistons to pistons fitting the sealed cylinders, the engine worked perfectly with an output of three hundred horsepower. The inventor claimed it would cost about twenty five dollars to charge each cylinder every sixty thousand miles.
There were indications that such an engine could provide its own electrical power and being a closed system, require no fuel. It is not by definition an electromagnetic engine, however. It is believed that at the heart of the Papp engine is the development of high-density electrical charge clusters which provide the energy to expand the gases.
Other patents are 5319336, 4151431, 3670494, 4046167 – Mechanical Accumulator, 3680431 – Method and Means for Generating Explosive Forces, and 4,428,193 – Inert Gas Fuel, Fuel Preparation Apparatus and System for Extracting Useful Work from the Fuel.
A demonstration of the Papp engine to representatives of the Stanford Research Institute resulted in killing one person and injuring another. Papp himself is believed to have died from apparent neutron radiation from his engine.
Jim Kettner of the Space Energy Association stated in a letter to Gary Vesperman that this is the best self-running device he knows of which can produce substantial amounts of power. A variation of the Papp engine was being built by Jim Sabori and, if sufficiently funded, was to have been ready by the end of 1998.
In a letter from Hal Fox of Trenergy, Inc., Fox states that he believes that the Papp engine works but hopes that much simpler ways of making energy can be developed. There are several groups working on versions of the Papp engine. It seems to keep recycling through the new-energy community.
Magnatron – Light-Activated Cold Fusion Magnetic Motor
During the late 1970’s Howard Rory Johnson, a brilliant inventor in Elgin, Illinois, combined light-activated cold fusion with a new type of magnetic motor into a “Magnatron”. His prototype Magnatron produced 525 horsepower but only weighed 475 pounds. It could propel a large truck or bus 100,000 miles on about 17 ounces of deuterium and 1.5 ounces of gallium before being recharged. This was years before either Pons and Fleischman or Dr. James Patterson entered the scene with their cold-fusion technology.
Johnson discovered the light-activated cold fusion portion of the Magnatron by accident when as he was developing a new type of electronic circuit using deuterium oxide and gallium, he noticed the two materials were producing energy on their own. He could not figure out what was triggering the energy production for some time until he finally discovered it was light.
The Magnatron’s flow of deuterium (an isotope of hydrogen) is controlled by magnetic tunnels. At the point where the deuterium strikes the gallium (a heavy metal electron donor), a beam of light from a diffraction prism forces their fusion. That controlled reaction results in the fusion of two atoms forming a new atom. In the process, electricity is released, and that is what powers the magnetic motor. The Magnatron is sealed, however, so ‘light’ is provided from photon energy produced from coils tied directly to the motor. It is more or less a pulse-generated system.
A photon is a football-shaped particle of electromagnetic wave energy. Its energy content is a product of its frequency f and Planck’s constant h. When an electron in orbit around the nucleus of an atom drops to a lower, less energetic orbit, a photon containing the energy equivalent to the electron’s energy drop is emitted. This explains why light and other forms of electromagnetic energy such as gamma rays and radar are sometimes observed as particles and other times as waves. The heated filament of a light bulb is an example of photon production.
There is no way to explain, using contemporary electrical theory, how his relatively small motor could produce such tremendous horsepower. Utilizing his own new electrical-magnetic energy theory, involving a process he called "attract-attract", Johnson exploited the magnetic field. He used the top and bottom rotors in his motor. First, the top rotor attracted, released; then the bottom rotor attracted, released. The action of attraction, alternating between upper and lower magnets, used the windings to complete the attract field.
Robert Nelson’s compilation of articles about the Magnatron provides much more technical detail on the Magnatron than the foregoing. (See http://www.rexresearch.com/magntron/magntron.htm.)
Johnson constructed his prototype Magnatron’s 525-horsepower magnetic motor without any of the hardware that is presently used in present state-of-the-art electric motors. Conventional motors use the accepted principle of attract-repel, an energy form that doesn't utilize the magnetic field to its greatest advantage. For comparison, a typical 500-horsepower electric motor has wires exiting it that are the size of a garden hose.
The sealed self-contained Magnatron has no wires. Thus, other than the Magnatron’s infrequent refueling with small amounts of deuterium and gallium, the stand-alone Magnatron uses no input power. The Magnatron's entire output power is conveyed by its magnetic motor’s rotating shaft.
Fuel for the Magnatron is plentiful: deuterium is derived from water, and gallium is extracted from abundant aluminum bauxite. Commercially available pure gallium is still scarce and expensive. It may well be possible, however, to cheaply transmute another less expensive element into gallium such as with the Hawking’s generator of cold electricity. See Gary Vesperman’s list of over two dozen methods of neutralizing radioactive waste in http://freeenergynews.com/Directory/NuclearRemediation/Vesperman/ which includes possible transmutation methods. Additional methods are briefly described in http://freeenergynews.com/Directory/NuclearRemediation/. Dr. Santilli’s method plus an explanation of suppression of radioactivity neutralization methods are available at http://www.nuclearwasterecycling.com/. Robert A. Nelson’s survey “Transmutations of Nuclear Waste” is at http://www.rexresearch.com/articles/nukewa.htm.
The Magnatron uses no fossil fuel in its operation, and it emits no pollution. The magnetic motor’s RPM is 8,000 with a gear ratio of 2:1. Lubrication for the sealed motor is synthetic motor oil which does not need changing and does not need a filter, because foreign materials such as carbon and varnish are not introduced into the system, as they are in the internal combustion piston engine.
This writer, Gary Vesperman, attended the 3rd International Symposium on New Energy in Denver, CO (April 25-28, 1996). I remember being impressed by Gerald Orlowski’'s lecture “Magnatron, Fusion Magnetic Motor”, during which he provided substantial technical information on the Magnatron.
Orlowski reported that, “Some inside information revealed that OPEC had been keeping track of all competitive technology", and Johnson was #1 on their hit list! Johnson was about to manufacture the motors through a nationwide dealership. Some motors still exist, but the owner wants several million dollars for them.”
This writer Gary Vesperman knows of very few inventions of new energy sources which are reasonably large stand-alone energy producers. Besides the Magnatron, they include Oleg Gritskevitch’s hydromagnetic dynamo, Gordon Ziegler’s electrino fusion power reactor, and Electron Power Systems’ micro-fusion reactor, which employs stable high-density plasma electron spiral toroids. Almost all inventions of new energy sources are, or claimed to be, relatively small over-unity power converters that convert input power to greater amounts of output power. Bob Dratch’s thorium powerpack is an exception (see above).
At the September 14, 2005 public meeting in Green Valley Ranch casino regarding the proposed Regional Fixed Guideway traversing Las Vegas, Nevada, this writer Gary Vesperman submitted comments suggesting possible power sources for the train, including descriptions of the hydromagnetic dynamo and the micro-fusion reactor.
No wonder the Magnatron’s inventor, Rory Johnson, was rumored to have been “Number One” on Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)’s hit list.
The following is an excerpt, slightly edited, from Orlowski’s lecture transcript where he tells about his unwitting personal involvement with the U.S. Government’s suppression of the Magnatron:
“After I saw the Magnatron motor, my life changed. I was no longer a happy camper working by myself in a wonderful, fully equipped research machine shop for the Greyhound/Armour Corporation in Arizona. While on a business trip, I saw this motor running in the Magnetron, Inc.’s showroom located in Eglin, Illinois.
“During my 15 years of electric motor repair, among the hundreds of motors I repaired, I rewound a 500 HP electric motor. That motor had wires exiting it that were the size of a garden hose. The Johnson motor being shown had NO wires. Surely this motor was unreal, a con-job to get money for dealerships. Yes, there he was, Rory Johnson standing next to his sealed self-contained electric motor.
“Upon returning to the Greyhound Towers and telling them what I had seen, they instructed me to call Mr. Johnson. Greyhound wanted Johnson to put forth a plan to install a motor in one of their buses for testing purposes.
“I called Johnson. He was delighted that a Greyhound employee had seen the motor running, and replied that the testing idea was acceptable. He would set a time frame for just when a bus should be delivered to him.
“Two years went by, with no business proposal from Johnson. Then, his former business partner, Mike Marzicola, called to say Johnson had passed away. He wanted me to work with him to get one of the motors running. I flew to Orange County, CA, saw the motor, took pictures, and put forth a plan to Greyhound. Subject to a contract with Marzicola, one of the old worn motors would be brought to the research shop. I would then very carefully reconnect the generator wires that Johnson had cut off prior to moving from Elgin, IL to California.
“Discussions with Marzicola brought out that the U.S. Government (given the authority by the Congress of 1952) had issued a GRAB order to take Johnson's motors. Rumor has it, the DOE is run by US oil companies and OPEC, and they want no competition, period. Because of this grab order, Johnson had cut the generator wires. He had then put his `total shop', with motors and all, on several U-Haul trucks and left Illinois in the middle of the night. He went to California to re-establish his business. But before he could get a motor running, he passed away.
“Surely, Greyhound would agree to let me re-start one of Johnson's motors. The wonderful proposal put forth to Greyhound was rejected by mail. Very agitated, I went to the top office at Greyhound demanding an explanation. I was met at the door with the comment, "We know why you are here." Knowing the potential savings to the bus company, surely they could have only one reason for rejecting the proposal. They must have believed I was not qualified to start up the motor.
“Greyhound’s top legal advisor stated he was present when the Greyhound board met and discussed my written proposal. He stated the following, "At NO time was the thought put forth that you would not succeed. In fact, we discussed all of the hardware designed and constructed by you, and started the conversation from what happens when Greyhound has a running motor. We contacted a State representative who felt this motor should not be allowed to be used in 4,000+ buses. The loss in tax dollars for fuel alone would be a very huge sum.” He then asked me to leave, stating he was sorry that he had to tell me the reason the plan was rejected.
“Telling Marzicola of the rejection, I offered to personally put in a few thousand dollars toward the parts to get one motor running. In return, I would be assigned the dealership for the Phoenix metropolitan area. We signed legal papers in exchange for the money agreed on, and went to work. (I still have the signed dealership.)
“The first thing I noticed was that someone had been working on repairing the motors. Three motors already had new commutator assemblies installed. Each assembly consisted of 3 commutator assemblies on one insulated tube with a metal case to secure it to the shaft.
“One motor still had the old worn commutator assembly, as it had not yet been repaired.”
Orlowski goes on to describe his reconstruction efforts and includes interesting technical details about the Magnatron’s structure and theory.
Johnson did not know that OPEC tracks all potential competition to its oil business and that he was reportedly number one on OPEC’s hit list. His first mistake was publicizing, in many magazines, his plans to manufacture and distribute his revolutionary motor.
Erik Masen has spoken with a few people who even signed up for distributorships. Erik Masen had included Johnson and his Magnatron in his energy invention suppression anthology (see http://www.electrifyingtimes.com/erik masen suppression.html).
In 1979, Johnson placed his engine in a Buick Electra and was preparing to drive it around the country to sign up more distributorships when the US Department of Energy and the State of Illinois teamed up to prohibit his company Magnatron, Inc., from producing and selling Magnatrons. They first placed a gag order on all the people in the company by using the Secrecy Act of 1952.
Secondly, the State of Illinois immediately requested the company to provide information about all of their employees, distributors, stockholders, investors, suppliers, etc. They asked questions that blatantly deny anyone’s constitutional rights to privacy. The pressure from the State of Illinois became so overwhelming that Johnson decided to move his entire business to California in the middle of the night.
After a year of hearing nothing but silence from Johnson, Greyhound agents tried to contact him – only to be notified that he had passed away unexpectedly. This is a particularly troubling part of the story, since he had been in his early fifties and in robust health. Later, Greyhound learned that shortly before he died, Johnson had inexplicably moved out of his laboratory in the middle of the night and taken all of his motors and technology to California.
Bob Bass, in his report copied below on low-energy nuclear transmutation, claims that the CIA, the KGB and the Mossad, etc. all have "sprays" which can be sprayed upon someone and cause him or her to die of apparently natural causes. One speculation is that Johnson’s death – apparently due to heart failure – had been artificially induced by such a spray.
In a January 20, 2007 email to Gary Vesperman, Terry Sisson reports:
“I visited Magnatron, Inc., in July 1979. I wish I would have taken a photo. Placards were placed over every inch of the large windows in the front of the building listing all of the questions the State of Illinois requested his company to provide. He wrote, “When has the government ever had the right to ask this of any company.” I peeked in the front window and saw one of his motors mounted on an engine stand. Nobody appeared to be there so I walked around to the rear of the building. I found the rear garage door open and could see the Buick Electra inside. I was about to approach nearer when a man emerged. We talked, but he quickly informed me that due to a US gag order he was unable to talk about anything.
I managed to get his phone number and called him from time to time for years following. He was an assistant of Rory’s and he kept the information very close to the vest. He did tell me that it was real and it worked, yet not how it worked.
“About 1984, I began to call all the Johnsons in the phone book in Elgin. I finally got a hold of Rory’s son. He too said that it was real, but I got nowhere. Around 1992, I met Jerry Orlowski, and he told me his experience as the employee of Greyhound who was sent to investigate the technology, since he wound electric motors for several years. Jerry was very upset about the whole incident, particularly Greyhound’s Board of Directors refusal to utilize the technology after he found the technology to be authentic. Jerry even witnessed the government’s seizure of the motors in California. — Terry Sisson.”
IPMS Energy Storage/Battery Device
During the summer of 1984, airborne intelligence surveillance teams of the United States Air Force, operating out of specially configured and equipped Boeing 707 airframes (called AWAC’s) electronically detected (and then shortly thereafter photographed) bursts of coherent light of enormous power originating in the vicinity of Dushambe, Turkministan. The bursts of light, a brilliant blue-green color, lasted just a few seconds and were shifted almost to the ultraviolet end of the light spectrum. The “laser” beams were directed upwards out of the atmosphere towards American military communications satellites.
At precisely the same time the AWAC’s detected and photographed the laser bursts (they were referred to in that jargon by American military analysts but later proved to be something almost entirely different), several of the satellites essential to America’s global military command and control communications systems became inexplicably inoperable.
The Defense Intelligence Agency, under the direction of the National Security Council and assisted by the National Security Agency, escalated its surveillance of the remote site in the Ural Mountains from which the bursts first originated. For several months, during a concerted campaign of uninterrupted observation by AWAC’s and American spy satellites, no additional bursts were observed or reported. Then, without warning, in the middle of the night nearly seven months later, AWAC’s crews operating just outside the territorial airspace of Afghanistan detected similar laser bursts of lower intensity during a period of intensive localized ground warfare.
The Afghanistan bursts were apparently aimed at targets under attack by Soviet infantry units. The laser bursts continued in a sustained, localized but obviously mobile attack pattern, as frequently as four or five times per hour, until nearly sunset of the next day. Photographic evidence gathered at the time by the AWAC’s crew, and later corroborated by photographs taken at the actual site of the fire fight and forwarded to the U.S. for analysis, showed that the targets of the laser bursts were ammunition and fuel supply depots located in the remote desert. Several of the ammunition and fuel caches had apparently been destroyed during the attack, as demonstrated by the evidence of explosions, fire, smoke and residual infra-red heat patterns detected, photographed and electronically recorded on-board the AWAC’s.
All this information was transmitted (via encrypted communications bursts, routed through the military Global Command Control satellite system) to the National Security Agency (NSA), located at Fort Meade, Maryland. Analysts there recognized that they were looking at evidence of a weapons system which had never been observed before. They did not know what had produced the laser bursts. But they did know that the technology which made such a thing possible was not available to the countries participating in the NATO Convention. They were terrified at the implications of such a development.
Within hours, the information was packaged into classified documents and conveyed to the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Joint Chiefs examined the information while they were being briefed by the AWAC’s crews which had witnessed and recorded the events. After the briefing, the crews were dismantled, and their various members stationed far away from one another, with orders never to discuss the events they had witnessed. Officially, the laser bursts never had occurred.
Secretary of Defense Frank Carlucci took delivery of the packet at his residence in Falls Church, Virginia, three days later, at a private, secret meeting held in the middle of the night. No one has yet adequately explained why the Joint Chiefs waited three full days to brief the Secretary. Early the next morning, he was driven in a specially prepared bulletproof limousine to the White House. He personally delivered the information to the new President of the United States, Ronald Reagan. The content of the Secretary’s report had an immediate, measurable impact.
It was this series of events which principally precipitated the Strategic Defense Initiative, a program of military defense and reprisal based on America’s state-of-the-art satellite-borne laser-optical and particle accelerator technologies. The S.D.I. system was intended to provide the U.S. with a meaningful deterrent to further aggressive use of the technology developed by the Soviet Military.
There was only one problem with this system, aside from the fact that its astronomical costs almost bankrupted the American economy: it did not work. S.D.I. was designed to respond to a kind of technology which was not achievable in the West, and which could not be explained by any of the models, materials, technologies or sciences known in the West.
In 1985, the top-secret military version of the space shuttle, code named Atlantis, embarked on a special orbital mission. One of its mission assignments was to retrieve, examine or photograph the military spy satellites which had been disabled by the laser bursts recorded in 1979-84. The results of this investigation have not been declassified or released in any but the most censored version to the public. What we do know for certain, as a matter of publicly available non-classified information, however, is that each of the disabled satellites appeared to have had at least one, and in some cases as many as four or five precisely measured holes, approximately the size of an American silver dollar, melted completely through them from the outside.
The photographs taken of the satellites show evidence of intense heat, charring and carbonized residue evenly distributed around the perimeter of each hole. The evidence is clear and unmistakable – the satellites were disabled by a coherent beam of some sort, characterized by such intense energy that it was possible to melt consistently measured holes through the exterior and interior components of American military satellites, after having passed through the atmosphere of the planet and into space for as many as 325 miles. Such a thing has scarcely been dreamed of by the American military, much less put into any but the most nominally effective operational form.
After more than ten years of political, economic and technological wrangling, and after the expenditure of more than one hundred twenty billion dollars in largely ineffectual research and development efforts, it is inescapably clear that no amount of money or political pressure, no amount of geo-political posturing or economic sanctions was going to compel the disclosure or replication of the technologies which produced the results photographed over the Carpathian Mountains and the Afghanistan deserts. The Soviets had developed a weapons system which was so revolutionary that it could not be explained, replicated or defended against.
The Reagan Administration’s lack of specificity about the nature of the implied threat to which S.D.I. was supposed to respond subjected the Administration, the Defense Department and the R&D proponents of the most prominent American aerospace corporations to an endless barrage of charges by the Press and the Congress. They were characterized as being disingenuous and accused of being unreasonably secretive during successive appropriations battles in the Congress.
The truth of matter is that the Administration and the Pentagon were not being disingenuous at all. They simply could not admit to the American public that they were attempting to develop an effective response to a weapons system which they did not understand and could not replicate.
There are a number of issues intrinsic to this set of circumstances, along with several dozen others which, though less well known or economically dramatic, are no less important from a technological standpoint. It is certain that the implication of these technologies has not been lost on those multi-national corporations whose entire capital structure may be threatened by the new sciences, technologies and materials which have been developed in secret laboratories, hidden in caverns excavated beneath the Carpathian Mountains, in the former Soviet Union.
Over the past decade the West has enjoyed occasional gratuitous glimpses into the heart of Soviet science. Attempts to disclose or discuss these developments in the press have been ruthlessly suppressed by powerful special interests vested in both the public and private sectors.
The science which underlies the series of events recounted here remains at the outer limits of the most advanced technology of which the West is capable. The questions posed by the military and corporate analysts about this laser beam weapons system are far-reaching in their scope and implications. Some of them are illustrative:
1) New Model of Quantum Mechanics: The sciences and models of quantum mechanics which produced such stunning recent developments in the West as the laser and maser make quite clear how much energy is required to create a beam of coherent light powerful enough to penetrate the atmosphere, retain its coherence in spite of atmospheric diffraction (and other effects described in quantum mechanics as “thermal blooming”), and melt a two-inch hole clear through a satellite made of the most sophisticated alloys ever produced in the West. Except for limited short-distance demonstrations conducted with industrial grade lasers used in cutting operations, there is no known combination of materials or technologies extant in the West to make such a thing possible.
2) New Materials: The materials necessary to create an electrical charge large enough to power a device capable of producing such a beam certainly do exist. In quantum mechanics the term large enough does not make sense, but we can agree for the purposes of this discussion on the effect of it as represented by such commonly accepted constructs as frequency, voltage, current and ionic flow rates [as distinguished by the phenomenon of resistance].
Hydroelectric plants and large, fixed-base nuclear power plants are capable of producing enough energy to theoretically power such a device. But the energy bursts in both the Carpathians and the Afghan desert were generated by sources which moved from one location to another. In order to do that, several additional considerations must be addressed:
a. Portability: The power source would have to be transportable or be capable of storing sufficient energy to repeatedly power such a device. Western technology cannot produce either a portable power production unit or energy storage system capable of the performance requirements everyone agrees must be met to make the weapons system work, either in the laboratory or in the field. System portability was the most puzzling feature of the NSA/DIA report.
When carefully analyzed, the computer-enhanced enlargements of the photographs taken by the spy satellites and AWAC’s crews failed to provide evidence of any tracks which could be attributed to wheeled or tracked vehicles operating in the precise locations and at the same time as the laser bursts which were observed. The implications of this set of circumstances was almost too much to believe – the devices were apparently either hand held or transportable and rechargeable in such a way as to allow them to be transported by one or more foot soldiers, without vehicular support.
b. Enormous Power Requirement: The materials and technologies used to construct a device capable of generating a beam of such enormous power and magnitude would have to be sufficiently advanced to enable the components to be transported without damage over significant distances in unpaved areas of very rough terrain. Such strategies, engineering techniques, construction technologies or materials do not exist in the Western inventory.
c. The continuous repetition of the laser bursts suggests that the devices can be operated repeatedly at short intervals of 12-15 minutes. This means they can be triggered with significantly higher frequency and intensity than anything which can be produced in the West, even for laboratory use. Industrial strength lasers used to cut metals require careful setup, accommodate only limited use in short bursts, require extensive cooling and must be continually recalibrated. These limitations obviously did not apply to the devices being operated in the Afghan desert. Analysts at AMTL agreed that the units would either have to be recharged via an external, independent device or somehow be capable of self-recharging in the field.
Such a thing is almost unthinkable by current Western military standards. Not only can we still not replicate the technology in any meaningful form, but the Soviets had refined the technology to a point which allowed it to be carried on the shoulders of ordinary foot soldiers and recharged in the field without motorized support. Unbelievable! How was such a thing possible? According to some of the highly qualified scientists who scrutinized the photographs, it is not possible. The “Not Invented Here” syndrome is alive and well in the American engineering community. Some of them still insist that the pictures were either fabricated or demonstrate something completely different than this narrative suggests.
3) Energy Recharge-Batteries: How did such high-intensity laser beam generators get recharged in the middle of the Afghan desert, in the absence of powered support vehicles or fixed-based power plants? There are a number of possible alternatives. They could have been powered by some sort of advanced battery technology. It’s possible, but if the battery technology used in the West is used as a model to support such a thesis, it would take a bank of the most sophisticated batteries ever designed by NASA, arrayed in series and parallel configurations larger than five full-sized Soviet T-60 tiger tanks to power such a device.
This theoretical battery bank, operating at 100% efficiency (which is not practically or theoretically possible; the best batteries manufactured in the West operate at less than 60% discharge efficiency), could conceivably produce enough direct current voltage (in a zero resistance super conductive circuit, which is not possible, either) to perhaps produce one burst of light equal in intensity to 20% of the power required to burn a 2-inch hole through a satellite moving at 20,000 miles per hour at a distance of 325 miles.
Soviet ground forces were generating bursts of this magnitude every 12-15 minutes for more than 10 hours with nothing but ground troops. During eight hours of this exchange, it was totally dark. Something pretty remarkable must have been going on to make such a thing possible.
4) Energy Recharge – Solar Cells: Another alternative would have been to have whatever energy storage devices were being used to power the “laser cannons” recharged by sunlight. The state-of-the-art in photo-voltaic cells produced in the West simply would not support such an undertaking. The very best solar cells ever produced in the West have been produced by the Japanese.
These cells operate at a maximum of 19% efficiency – that is, they convert as much as 19% of the ambient visible sunlight shining on a clear, cloudless day into ion flow, which then becomes low voltage direct electrical current flowing through a circuit. The Japanese panels require months per section to manufacture and literally cost more than their weight in gold to manufacture. They are very heavy and are so sensitive to vibration and calibration that once installed, they cannot be moved at all.
Photo-voltaic cells capable of providing enough electricity to recharge a theoretically infinite energy well would have to operate at efficiencies of 50-80% to recharge batteries of infinite electrical capacity with enough power to trigger such a device. Such cells would have to be very light weight and able to withstand extremes of heat, cold, vibration, dust, wind and other conditions encountered in a hostile battlefield environment. Nothing like that exists in the Western technological arsenal.
5) Dielectric Materials – Transformers and Capacitors: Another consideration must be reconciled before this issue can be theoretically put to rest. In order to produce a burst of coherent light of sufficient intensity to have the effect which was observed and recorded by the surveillance teams, the voltage and amperage required to support such a device would have to be staggeringly high. In order to operate at all, the voltage supplied to the system must be released all at once, not in a continuous stream but in a single coherent burst so intense that any materials known in the West would either evaporate or melt. Not only would the best dielectric materials known to Western Science melt because of the heat produced by such enormous energy bursts, but before a bolt of energy of this magnitude could even be released to such a device, it would have to be accumulated and stored somehow.
A similar set of requirements of a less dramatic type is present in all the electronic devices manufactured and marketed in the West. This includes the entire range of electronic devices such as VCR’s, computers, televisions and sound components, telecommunications, information storage, transmission and retrieval systems of every kind. We could not live as we do without them. The components which convert, store and release ion flow into the circuitry of these devices are known as transistors, transformers and capacitors.
This discussion delves into a slightly technical area here, so non-scientific types will need to either become familiar with the fundamentals of electricity to understand what is meant or simply give it a possibility that what is developed in the next section is a true representation of the way such things actually operate. The discussion deals with such commonly used and seldom understood concepts as voltage, current, frequencies and resistance.
(a) Transformers convert voltage at one level of current (amperage) to either higher or lower voltage levels. When the voltage is increased, the amperage or current is proportionately decreased. A low voltage produced at a high current level can be transformed into a much higher voltage at a proportionately lower level of current or “power.”
(b) Capacitors: The decrease in amperage which accompanies a transformation of low voltage to higher voltage is often compensated for by a device known as a capacitor. In the most simplistic terms, capacitors “store” electrical energy until the amount of voltage and current reach a certain minimal threshold. When that point is reached, the entire store of energy is released all at once in a single burst.
The tantalum materials used in the West to manufacture such devices conform to certain standard rules which are commonly accepted by electrical engineers. These rules have only recently been stretched by new technologies and materials developed in the West. For the purposes of this discussion, though, it is safe to say that electrical engineers have long relied on these rules because they have always produced the same results when applied in the same way. Here’s an example.
It is standard engineering fare which dictates that a transformer capable of accommodating one volt at one ampere of current across a grid of one ohm of resistance will be one cubic meter in dimension. If followed to its logical conclusion, this standard rule of electrical engineering would require that a transformer capable of supporting a laser burst device of the kind operated by the Soviet ground forces in the Afghan desert would have to be approximately the size of a building built on a base 100 feet to a side, nearly 150 feet high.
Surely such a device could not have been hidden from the AWAC’s eye in the sky which can clearly photograph the letters on a license plate from 60,000 feet altitude, nor could it have been moved on the shoulders of ground troops without wheeled vehicular support. The fact that there was absolutely no trace of such a huge, massive transformer device (or any other kind of structure or vehicle which could be construed to serve that purpose) means that something else must have been used instead. Military analysts had absolutely no idea what it could have been.
Such a burst system cannot operate without a capacitor of some sort. A capacitive device capable of storing the amount of energy required to power a single burst from a laser cannon, made of the most advanced dielectric material known in the West, would have to have been equally massive and, further, would have to have been cooled by some sort of strategy which would have been instantly and unmistakably detected by the infrared cameras and spectroscopic scanners used aboard the AWAC’s and the spy satellites which investigated the scene.
The practical requirements of such a system are best demonstrated by the massive equipment required to operate and cool the Super Conductor Super Collider linear particle accelerators recently designed by the United States and Japan. No evidence of any such capacitive device was recorded in either the Carpathian Mountains or the Afghanistan desert. How can we explain it?
Without going into any detail about how the technologies were developed, suffice it for now to say that the Soviet ground forces in Afghanistan were equipped with a prototype of a hand-held plasma beam accelerator, the likes of which had only been roughly imagined by American military analysts. The device relied on some innovative strategies. Among these were:
Energy Storage Devices: The power source for the Soviet light cannons was comprised of a back-pack array of specially designed energy storage devices. The closest thing we have in our vocabulary to compare to them is described by the term “battery.” In the limited sense that these devices store electrical energy, they are batteries. Any other similarity to the batteries we are accustomed to in the West ends there. The literal translation of the Russian name for them is energy accumulators.
The batteries relied on in the West are based on the chemical properties of components which, when combined in certain configurations and proportions, interact chemically with one another. The result of this chemical interaction is that it creates both heat and a stream of liberated ions – electricity. In dry cell batteries, the process of chemical interaction is one way – once they have been expended, they are simply disposed of. It is estimated that more than 12 billion expended dry cell and lead-acid batteries are dumped into America’s landfills every year.
Other batteries are designed and constructed so that the chemical reactions which liberate electrical current are reversible in some degree. These rechargeable cells are characterized by the lead-acid batteries which are used in automobiles and in commercial and industrial applications. Various strategies have been developed to make batteries relying on chemical reactions maximally effective, but the theoretical limits of effectiveness of such devices have surely been reached.
A consortium of aerospace companies working with NASA recently announced the development of an advanced sodium-hydride-based rechargeable cell which is the most efficient battery yet invented in the West. Unfortunately, it operates at an ambient temperature of 2000 degrees centigrade and, if allowed to reach temperatures outside a very narrow safe operating zone, will explode with the force of a small thermo-nuclear device of approximately ten-kiloton yield. It is not safe, but it is the best Western science has come up with.
The energy storage device developed by the I.N. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science (IPMS), Kiev, Ukraine, works on a completely different principle. Its construction is the result of a completely unique nonlinear quantum mechanical model which makes it possible to create crystalline lattices of absolutely pure carbon (and other materials) in sheets of infinitely variable dimension which are exactly one molecule thick. The crystal formation techniques and the whole body of new science which allows for their creation in the first place are completely unknown to Western science.
The mono-molecular sheets deposited by this technique are wrapped back and forth on top of each other, more than one million times per millimeter, and are separated from each other by a distance of less than one atomic diameter. At this level of construction, the material becomes subject to the rules of quantum mechanics which are almost entirely probabilistic. That means a whole atom of carbon (or almost anything else except an electron or photon) will not fit in the space which separates the lattice sheets.
When viewed under an electron microscope, the sheets produce a pattern which looks for all the world like an endless field of four-sided pyramids, connected base to base, on a single plane, with the tips of the pyramids protruding endlessly, uniformly upwards. When wrapped back and forth on top of each other, these sheets of pure carbon crystal, made of carbon molecules shaped like trillions of identical tiny pyramids, all arrayed endlessly in identical formation, are positioned so that the tips of the pyramids on the bottom sheet are matched with the tips of the pyramids on the top sheets. What remains between the pyramid tips are open “spaces” or energy wells.
The quantum physics which describes the characteristics of the energy wells created between the layers of crystalline lattice is largely unknown to Western physicists. The Soviet model predicts with a high degree of probability that the quanta of energy referred to in the West as electrons (and, in some cases, photons), the stuff of which electricity is made, will, when introduced to the lattice structure, search, find and fit into the energy wells with military precision.
During the recharging or loading phase, the energy storage devices made of the crystalline lattice material channel one electron at a time into each well created by four carbon pyramids on the bottom layer and four carbon pyramids on the top layer. Because the rules of quantum mechanics which operate in this tiny environment demand it, each electron or quanta of energy has a certain polarity, spin and “color” (and other mathematically defined characteristics) which must be accommodated if it is to find, fit and stay in an energy well. Interestingly enough, when a current is applied across the lattice-work structure, the electrons behave precisely as nonlinear quantum mechanics predicts they will. They flow much like a fluid into the lattice field, then separate into individual energy quanta and spin into the last energy well in each layer, automatically adjusting their individual spin, polarity and color to match their characteristics to fit the requirements of each well, until the lattice is full.
Because no chemical reactions are involved in the process of marching electrons into or out of the energy well fields, there is no resistance in the circuit. In the absence of resistance, the electrons fill the wells at light speed, never missing a space, automatically adjusting polarity, spin and other characteristics, and creating no heat. The amount of time required to “charge” such a cell is less than 5% of the time required to recharge a conventional chemical battery of similar voltage and current.
The validity of E = MC2 is called into question by the way these devices function. When the battery is fully charged, it actually demonstrates more mass than when the energy storage device is empty or discharged. The laws of quantum mechanics relied on in the West state categorically that this is not possible. It is the answer to the question, “How much does a beam of light weigh?”
According to the Soviet model, this is precisely as it should be. When this phenomenon was first demonstrated to scientists in the West who were testing the energy storage devices at INEEL in Idaho, they were thunderstruck. The quanta of energy, or electrons as we refer to them, which are poured into the crystalline lattice demonstrate characteristics of mass even though they are bundles of pure energy sitting in stasis, literally at rest. The characteristic of mass is verifiable – you can measure it by weighing the energy storage devices before and after they are charged. When they are charged, they demonstrate appreciably more mass than when they are fully discharged.
If this is confusing to you, to suggest that pure energy can be shown to demonstrate verifiable mass while at rest (in stasis), perhaps you can begin to appreciate how fundamentally different the physics of all this is when viewed in the terms of Einstein’s classic equation E = MC2.
The existence of this technology clearly is proof positive that not only does energy demonstrate the characteristics of mass, but it does so in a state of non-motion or stasis, sitting idly in an energy well. A state of stasis is a very far cry from the terminal theoretical velocity required by the constant in Einstein’s equation, equivalent to the square of the speed of light.
The scientific implications of this phenomenon are truly staggering. At very least, the verification of mass as a property of energy quanta at rest suggests that Einstein’s theory of relativity may be altogether incorrect as a means of describing the dynamics underlying the real nature of the material world and its relationship to energy.
The existence of this technology suggests at very least, that energy and mass are equivalent characteristics of all things which are manifest in the material world. It is this fundamental contextual difference which distinguishes the Soviet model of quantum mechanics from the Western model. “The proof of the pudding,” they say, “is in the eating.”
Theoretical physicists may argue endlessly about the validity of the assumptions relied on by the IPMS scientists to develop their unique sciences, technologies and materials. But they cannot argue about the existence of the materials which have arisen from that context. They are as real as they can be. And they are unlike anything ever seen or contemplated in the West.
In the same way energy quanta stored in the energy wells of crystalline lattice materials demonstrate complete mathematical satisfaction with staying there indefinitely, when allowed to flow out in the form of an outgoing wave of electrical discharge, these quanta (electrons or photons, as you prefer) march right back out without resistance at light speed through a closed circuit to another use.
When these energy storage devices are discharged, they demonstrate other attributes which are not known in Western science, and which, because of the very nature of the chemical reactions we are accustomed to, are not theoretically possible according to conventional wisdom. Conventional chemical batteries, when fully charged, produce electric current at a useable voltage for perhaps 30-40% of the total discharge cycle. After that, either the voltage or amperage (or both) drop to low enough levels that the devices being powered by them cannot recognize or use the electrical current which remains available. At that point, the batteries either have to be recharged or replaced.
The crystal lattice batteries have been demonstrated to produce precisely the same current and voltage levels throughout 98% of their discharge cycle. They produce no heat during discharge, regardless of the rate at which they are discharged. This is absolutely contrary to our experience with batteries, transformers or capacitors. Until the crystalline lattice materials were specifically engineered to register an electronically detectable blip at 95-96% discharge, it was impossible even for the scientists who developed them to distinguish a partially discharged battery from a fully charged one.
There is another characteristic which is intrinsic to energy storage devices which comes into play here. It is a characteristic of materials which is described as energy density. For non-scientific readers, this concept can simply be construed to mean the amount of measurable electrical current which can be produced by any device or material when its mass is converted into electrical energy. The concept is expressed in mathematical formulas as the number of watts and hours of consumable energy which can be converted from each kilogram of material. It is expressed as watt-hours per kilogram.
Here is an example we can all understand. Consider gasoline. When converted into electrical power at 100% efficiency, gasoline has been theoretically shown to have an energy density of between 550 and 600 watt-hours per kilogram of mass. In easy terms, that means that if one kilogram of gasoline were converted into pure electricity at 100% efficiency (with no loss due to heat, resistance, waste, etc.), the reservoir of energy would power a 100-watt light bulb for 5.5 to 6 hours.
Most of the high-end conventional automobile batteries of the lead-acid variety operate at an energy density rate of between 20-25 watt-hours per kilogram. The best NASA sodium-hydride batteries operate at 48-50 watt hours per kilogram. The energy accumulator devices which have been tested at the Idaho National Electronic Laboratories have demonstrated energy densities of between 850 and 1050 watt-hours per kilogram.
What does this mean in practical terms? It means, for one thing, that for the first time in the history of science an energy storage device has been created with an energy density which is greater than gasoline or any other refined fossil fuel. It means that devices which rely on these energy storage technologies can theoretically be designed to store and deliver clean electrical power at higher rates of efficiency than any fossil fuel ever discovered.
The global implications of this technology are irresistible. It means, among other things, that the technology exists, right now, to eliminate the need to build another nuclear power plant or dam another river to produce hydroelectric power. It means we can no longer justify burning another ounce of petroleum, another piece of coal, another cubic centimeter of natural (or unnatural gas) or another tree to produce heat, electricity or power for any purpose, including transportation.
When coupled with the plasma beam devices being tested by the Soviet infantry units in Afghanistan, these energy storage devices operated at such unbelievably high rates of discharge efficiency that they made it possible to repeatedly induce huge electrical discharges in a highly mobile configuration.
The same technologies which were used to produce the energy storage devices have been adapted to create transformers and capacitors with previously unimaginable performance characteristics. Instead of adhering to the conventional western model of “One Volt at One Amp across a resistance of One Ohm equals One Cubic Meter,” the Soviets have produced a capacitor which measures more than 1200 farads at 10,000 amperes in a package the size of a tuna sandwich.
When tested by the Technology Materials Testing Laboratory of the Defense Department at the Pentagon and at the I.N.E.E.L. in Idaho, totally new testing equipment had to be designed, engineered and constructed just to test the devices. The scientists at those laboratories had never tested anything like these materials before.
Instead of having to house transformer and capacitor devices in a series of trailers towed by diesel tractors or huge fixed-base facilities, the operating apparatus which supplied transformed power and high intensity capacitive bursts to the light cannons weighed less than ten pounds and could easily be transported in a backpack by a foot soldier.
One final question remains unanswered. “How did the energy storage devices, once dissipated or discharged, become recharged in the field, especially in the dark of night?”
The back-pack plasma beam device detected by the AWAC’s during limited combat use in the Afghanistan desert was powered by energy storage devices constructed of crystalline lattice materials. After each laser burst, the energy storage devices were recharged every 12-15 minutes (nearly 45 minutes in the dark of night – the residual ambient heat of the desert is a very efficient source of infrared energy) by sunlight, collected and converted to electricity by four-foot square panels of “solar cell” material arrayed on a pole like a flag, each weighing less than ten ounces.
The electrical energy stored in the back-pack energy accumulators was transformed into enormously high voltages and released at almost unbelievably high current levels when the super-capacitors were sufficiently charged. The beam of “light” detected by the AWAC’s crews was a field of plasma, flowing at the speed of light and demonstrating characteristics of mass (and, therefore, kinetic energy). The phenomenon represented by these bolts of lightning are not comprehensible according to the model of quantum mechanics and plasma physics currently being used in the West.
Battery packs utilizing these energy accumulator materials have been designed, produced and tested which provide more than 14 hours of continuously transmitted power on a single charge to conventional hand-held cellular telephone devices. Similar improvements in conventional battery/energy storage capacity have been developed and are being tested for such devices as video camcorders, laptop and portable computers and other similar consumer, commercial, industrial and military applications.
IPMS research in the field of layered crystals has thus led to the creation of capacitors with a very high level of capacitance (measured in farads). This technology is based on a revolutionary production technique which forms polarized surfaces of one molecule thickness, separated by less than one atomic diameter of space, held together by weak Van der Waals energy forces. The special properties created by these layered crystalline structures provide previously unimaginable internal surface areas. Super capacitors are constructed of layered materials numbering more than one million dipole sheets for each millimeter of crystal thickness.
These devices provide a virtually limitless number of charge-discharge cycles at astonishingly rapid charge and discharge rates. The potential impact of such devices on all electronic equipment currently being produced is incalculable, since virtually all electronic devices rely extensively on the West’s state-of-the-art tantalum capacitance technologies.
At present, IPMS has on hand (among others) a super-capacitor roughly the size and dimension of a sandwich which develops more than 1,200 farads at 10,000 amperes. It also boasts production of a battery whose active mass energy density exceeds 850 watt-hours per kilogram. For the non-scientist (and all the rest of us as well) this means that a “battery” has been produced which, for the first time in history, produces more power per unit of mass than any fossil fuel ever devised.
Prototype testing of larger-scaled devices designed specifically for providing power to electric vehicles is currently underway. Prototypes are expected to be capable of sustained highway speeds of up to 70 miles per hour with a range of 525 miles on a single charge. The power plant for this application has been recently improved by the inclusion of a proprietary solid-state ceramic electric motor which weighs 7.2 kilograms and produces 100 horsepower on 12-volt direct current. For comparison, an electric vehicle employing a 100-horsepower electric motor performs the same as with a 500-horsepower gasoline engine.
If these performance attainments can be sustained in broad-based applications, electrically powered vehicles could be produced which would meet or exceed virtually all performance characteristics currently available in equipment relying on internal combustion, petroleum-based engines. Gasoline/diesel-powered transportation devices can be replaced by cleaner, more efficient and significantly less expensive alternatives.
The world market for current energy storage applications which will be superseded by these energy storage technologies is estimated to be in excess of $24 billion per year (1991), exclusive of electric vehicle considerations.
(Source: David G. Yurth, The Anthropos Files: Tales of Quantum Physics from Another World – 2nd Edition, 2007)
IPMS: High-Temperature Gas Plasma Detonator
Since its establishment in 1951, the I. N. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science (IPMS), Kiev, Ukraine, has been secretly developing, testing and producing more than 130 new materials in 30 general materials categories. IPMS scientists have developed a whole new science based on their unique model of plasma physics. With their invention of a high-temperature gas plasma detonator, strategic metals and other commonly used materials can literally be sprayed onto the surface of other, previously incompatible materials. These gas plasma detonation spray technologies make it possible to create permanent molecular bonds between materials which could never be married together before.
Chromium materials of an entirely new type have been developed to provide high-purity cathodes and targets. Moldable, flexible chromium (a type of material never before available) can now literally be sprayed to conform to widely varying shapes for linings (i.e., to reduce internal pipe corrosion), provide nuclear rod protection, and highly effective space hardening. These techniques have been perfected and used in practical field applications for more than 35 years.
The unique nature of these technologies may not be readily apparent to those not intimately familiar with the commercial and industrial uses of such materials. In more ordinary applications, however, the importance of being able to provide solid targets, stand-alone ingots of ultra-pure chromium, scandium, magnesium and other exotic materials, cannot be overstated. Today, the state-of-the-art in the West only allows chromium, for example, to be transported and used while in solution with other highly toxic liquids. Western scientists do not have the ability to produce free-standing ingots of any of these materials. The manufacturing models which rely on Western science make it clear that it is not theoretically possible for such materials to be produced in a free-standing form.
Similar materials coupled with the technologies of high-temperature gas plasma detonation have been developed for coating internal combustion engine parts to extend life cycle. They have been applied to enhance the performance characteristics of memory elements for computers and to support an extraordinary variety of totally new electronic circuitry. This technology has been successfully used to produce computer circuit boards whose operating components are intrinsic to the circuitry, thereby eliminating the utility or need for soldering or pin housings. The use of scandium, a very rare and exotic element available only in the Carpathian Mountains of Ukraine, make much of this possible in ways not anticipated by Western science.
IPMS-Kiev scientists have developed a series of diamond and cubic boron nitride powders which are smaller and more uniform than any other manufactured today. Also available in this family of materials are very fine (sometimes mono-molecular) ultra-high purity powders and liquids of refractory metals including chromium, vanadium, tungsten, scandium and molybdenum. These powders can literally be sprayed as a plasma field to form continuous, seamless, flexible molecular bonds with host surfaces without electrolytic processes. These materials demonstrate clearly superior performance in tool hardening, cutting edge equipment and polishing.
IPMS-Chernovitsky scientists have developed an entire family of previously unknown technologies based on woven fibers made entirely of 100% pure basalt fibers (lava rock). This totally new technology allows for the production of flexible, weave-able threads. These fibers are fundamentally resistant to heat, demonstrating a softening point in excess of 800 degrees centigrade. Fibers of this material have been produced in diameters of less than 3 microns (millionths of a meter), more than 10 times smaller than a human hair.
Allied Signal Corporation in the United States has attempted unsuccessfully for more than twenty-five years to produce a single fiber of a similar type material. Today, the Ukraine has the capacity to produce these raw fibers at the astronomical rate of 100 tons per month.
These materials are currently being produced in applications involving brake shoes and clutch plates with extraordinary performance characteristics. These materials sustain only about 15% of the wear currently attributed to asbestos-based materials used in identical applications, with the added advantage that they are environmentally friendly (non-toxic and non-polluting). In current applications, parts fabricated of basalt fibers actually operate at higher efficiencies as surface temperatures are increased, up to operating temperatures exceeding 800 degrees Centigrade.
Basalt fiber materials have also been shown to demonstrate superior insulating capabilities over commercially available materials in applications involving both temperature and sound. They have been used in applications related to mine roofing, trays of water cooling systems and as both gas and fluid filters. A four-inch deep pile of 5-micron filaments has been shown to demonstrate heat insulating properties in excess of R-65, which is nearly four times the efficiency of glass fiber equivalents, at one-half the weight.
Further, basalt fibers have been woven together with threads of tungsten, chromium and other strategic metals to produce cloth materials with previously unheard of characteristics. Woven metallic threads and fabrics of this type have never before been produced anywhere in the world.
This writer, Gary Vesperman, has included in his “Advanced Self-Powered Electric Vehicle Concept” (see http://www.padrak.com/vesperman) a monocoque (unibody) basalt/carbon fiber foam body/frame. The IPMS-manufactured basalt/carbon fiber foam is extremely strong yet lighter than fiberglass. A test vehicle made with basalt/carbon fiber foam parts was reportedly the only vehicle ever tested that can cut through a cast-iron London taxicab in a collision.
To utilize this technology to create an automobile enclosure, three technologies are needed:
1. The basalt fiber technology can only be found at the IPMS. There may still exist some spools of the stuff in or around Kiev. The principal value of the material is that it has a softening temperature of 805 degrees centigrade.
2. The Russians use powdered metallurgy to alloy their strategic metals – the ideal mix of metal powders would be aluminum and magnesium. Since both can be found in finely particulated powders and when mixed together in the right ratios, these two metals form a material which is utterly resistive to corrosion and which has excellent tensile strength.
3. The powdered metals are mixed in a chamber like dry cake mix and then applied using a third technology – in IPMS documents, this technology is referred to as a "High-Temperature Gas Plasma Detonator". The metal powder is poured into a ceramic container, which funnels it into a specially designed high-temperature containment vessel which is also surrounded by super magnets (see IPMS-Kiev and Arzamas-16: Super Magnets elsewhere in this electrical energy innovations compilation), arranged in a very precise order to create a compressive effect. When the powdered metal is brought into the chamber, high voltage, high pressure and extreme magnetic fields reduce the metal powder to a plasma, which is then expelled through a nozzle and onto a target – in this case, the woven basalt fiber which creates the shape of the vehicle.
When the metallic plasma collides with the basalt fiber material, it has a temperature of about 1600 degrees centigrade. This causes the basalt fibers to soften and partially melt – but the cooling gradient for this material is so steep that it cools almost immediately below 800 degrees centigrade, at which point the fibers reconstitute. This creates a basalt fiber-reinforced metal-alloyed shell which is extremely strong, very light weight and can be polished to a high sheen.
This is the technology the Russians have used for 35 years to create fuel cells for their huge rocket boosters – and it is the reason their boosters are so light, have no gaskets or seams and can be reused over and over again. It is primarily because of their extensive use of these integrated technologies that the Soviet space program has been able to consistently deliver larger payloads into orbit that any other nation since the space race began in 1957.
(Source: David G. Yurth, The Anthropos Files: Tales of Quantum Physics from Another World – 2nd Edition, 2007)
IPMS-Chernovitsky: Super Ceramics
The I.N. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science (I.P.M.S.) is one of more than 70 institutes founded by the government of the Soviet Union during the decade following World War II. Its mission was very simple: the scientists forcibly relocated from post-war Europe and enslaved at the Institute were commissioned to learn everything there is to know about the material world. They were not asked, indeed, they were not permitted, to make any decisions about how their discoveries were to be applied. In fact, from the outset and during all of the ensuing 40 years, there was not a single applications engineer among the 6,600 scientists who worked in the Institute.
The peculiar set of circumstances which provided the essential breeding ground for the extraordinary discoveries spawned by the Institute was not reserved just to I.P.M.S. The central government of U.S.S.R. jealously guarded its absolute right to make all decisions about what was done with the discoveries created in all the institutes. It is not surprising, therefore, that a system of government so paranoid about anyone stealing a pair of shoes that it manufactured left boots in Moscow and right boots in Kiev, would totally fail to recognize or effectively apply the benefits of some startlingly new sciences to clothe, house and feed its own people.
In fact, it was precisely because the Institute was forced to operate in a purely theoretical environment, with no pressure whatever to meet production or marketing deadlines, operating virtually isolated from any contact with the outside world, that the scientists and academicians were able to produce at least 7 whole new sciences, 30 technologies, and 130 materials unknown in the West. It is largely because the most brilliant theoretical physicists in the entire Soviet Union were able to work for nearly 50 years in the singular pursuit of pure research that the sciences developed at I.P.M.S. are so fundamentally unique.
It is interesting to note that only a small part of the new sciences developed at the Institute was revealed to or known by the government of the former Soviet Union prior to its collapse in August, 1991. The antipathy of the Institute’s scientists to the USSR government’s shabby treatment led them to successfully hide nearly all of their often revolutionary research results.
One of the Institute’s four sites, IPMS-Chernovitsky, developed moldable, machine-able, ultra-high temperature, super-hard, and strategic metal-alloyed ceramic substances.
The uniformity and density of ceramic materials is what determines the quality, consistency and persistence of the resonant tone produced by an oscillating crystalline material. Research has created a whole new family of moldable, machine-able, ultra-high temperature, super-hard and strategic metal-alloyed ceramics capable of withstanding operating temperatures of 1200 degrees centigrade. This is more than 400 degrees centigrade higher than can be tolerated by other known ceramic materials commercially available anywhere else in the world, including those manufactured by Allied Signal Corporation and Kyocera.
These materials are being utilized in entirely ceramic internal combustion engines, high-speed turbines and self-lubricating bearing surfaces. The latest ceramic materials designed for use in high-speed jet turbines operate continuously at temperatures in excess of 1200 degrees centigrade. This is more than 400 degrees centigrade higher than the theoretical limit allowed by the quantum mechanics model relied on in the West.
The ceramics produced at the IPMS-Chernovitsky plant have been made harder by fully one factor of hardness than the hardest alloyed metal machine tools currently produced by any other known means of manufacture. They have been made harder by at least one full order of magnitude than either natural or synthetically produced diamonds. Practical applications include drilling and mining, grinding tools, down-hole equipment, tool inserts and the new generation of cubic boron nitride tools that are currently in use.
Proof positive of the extraordinary uniformity and density of these materials is easily verified by a simple demonstration if the measurement of softening temperatures is deemed insufficient. Ceramic pistons manufactured for use in ceramic diesel engines will, when struck by a hard object, produce a clear resonant tone which persists for more than seventeen seconds. This is at least eight seconds longer than the resonant persistence produced by the finest glass or crystal ever manufactured,
IPMS: Micro-Channels and Filters
The I.N. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science (IPMS) was established in Kiev, Ukraine in 1951. Between 1945 and 1955, the government of the Soviet Union created at least 72 self-contained, completely isolated scientific communities like the IPMS scattered all over the most desolate parts of the Soviet empire. Stalin systematically established more than 360 such enclaves as a matter of policy. He deliberately prevented the scientists and their families from co-mingling with the rest of Soviet society or corresponding with the West. This phenomenon of cultural isolation was typical of life in the U.S.S.R. after World War II.
Many of the key scientists who were forcibly expatriated by the Red Army under Stalin’s orders and relocated to work in the Institute had been captured by the Soviet armies during the occupation and annexation of Eastern Europe at the end of World War II. Only a handful of them succeeded in escaping to the West. Those who tried to escape were almost always captured and executed. In some cases, their families were sent to languish and die in the Gulags.
Many of the original team of scientists sequestered in L’vov, the entrance to the Institute, had been contemporaries, co-workers and close personal friends with many of the most prominent physicists and other scientists who emigrated to the United States before, during and after World War II.
During World War II in Europe, and afterwards in Stalin’s Soviet Union, the original Directors of the Institute experienced the horrors of developing technology for destructive military use. For more than 40 years, scientists at IPMS (and, no doubt, at some of the other Soviet institutes) elected to keep secret as many of their key discoveries as possible until a time when their genius could be constructively applied to solving the global materials, energy consumption and industrial manufacturing issues which are responsible for the current deplorable state of the environment.
Among the original group of scientists relocated to work in the Institute were some who were part of the German team which worked during World War II to develop fissionable nuclear materials, synthetic fuels and foods, and other technological advances for the Third Reich. Information regarding the advanced nature of some of the work they participated in has only recently been declassified and released to the public. Some of the formulas and technologies they developed were absolutely revolutionary and many have never been replicated in the post-war world.
Among recently declassified files is a set of documents which describes the development of infra-red, heat-seeking “smart bombs” which were so effective that a single bomb, dropped by a single Nazi bomber in a night attack in the North Atlantic in 1942, sank a British troop ship carrying more than 3,000 American troops. The bomb recognized and guided itself down the troop ship’s smoke stack in much the same way similar devices were observed to function during Operation Desert Storm, nearly 50 years later. The technology which made this device functional was so far advanced beyond anything available to the Allies at the time that the War Department kept the story classified for more than 50 years.
Many of the materials, processes, technologies and applications produced by the Institute are so unique that in some cases there are literally no words in the languages of the Western industrialized nations to describe them.
IPMS has produced a family of micro-channel and filter materials with uniformly controllable orifices as small as .5 micron from combinations of carbon-fiber, basalt, ceramic and strategic metals – including stainless steel, scandium and chromium. These materials demonstrate a consistency of orifices fully a factor of ten times smaller and more consistent than the smallest ever manufactured in the U.S.
These materials have been used in applications for heat exchangers, catalysts and separation of gases on a molecular level. A notable application involves the use of such materials to separate virtually 100% pure CO2 from hydrogen gas at the well-head from gas wells. Then 98% of the CO2 can be pumped back into the well for re-pressurization, with the pumps then being operated directly on virtually pure hydrogen fuel.
The scientists, academicians and others at the Institute who developed revolutionary new models of quantum mechanics, quantum physics and the manufacturing processes and techniques which resulted in these materials, refused as a matter of conscience to allow much of what they had developed to pass into the hands of the KGB and the Soviet military.
IPMS: Thermal Electric Cooling Devices
The I.N. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science (IPMS) was established in Kiev, Ukraine in 1951. It operated in absolute secrecy and was totally unknown to the American intelligence community until just prior to the implosion of the Soviet Union in August of 1991. The mission of the Institute was to use whatever tools or means were necessary to know everything there is to know about materials. They had no production deadlines to contend with, and there was not a single applications engineer in the entire organization.
The 6600 scientists and technicians who worked in the Institute developed an entirely new model of nonlinear quantum mechanics to describe the forces which make the world we live in behave as it does. This new model suggests that the material world is substantially different from the world described by the models relied on in the West. Seven new sciences, twenty-seven new technologies, and one hundred thirty previously unknown materials developed in the Institute are based on the same revolutionary new model of quantum mechanics.
Research and development in the deposition and culture of layered crystal lattices has produced an entirely new class of materials, previously unknown to Western science. These are referred to in recently submitted patent application documents as “Thermal Electric Cooling Devices”. Because of the nature and function of a specially designed combination of crystal layered “hosts” and their intercalated “guest” materials, these specially designed capacitors actually absorb energy when subjected to a flow of electrical current, producing a specific cooling effect on the material surfaces. All other known materials produce heat when subjected to the same conditions. Temperatures of 60 degrees Kelvin (-259 degrees Fahrenheit) have been produced under controlled, carefully documented laboratory conditions. This is cold enough to liquefy free-standing nitrogen gas from the atmosphere.
The potential applications for this technology are manifold, but perhaps the most important is the potential it provides to totally eliminate any need for the use of compressed fluorocarbons of all types in refrigeration. Parallel applications in the telecommunications, computer and electronics industries have also been demonstrated to be highly effective and cost efficient, particularly as they relate to the use of super-conductive materials.
Advanced Solar Photo-Voltaic Crystal Lattice Cells
In 1989, during another flight of the Space Shuttle Atlantis, the U.S. military photographed a newly launched Soviet communications satellite in geo-synchronous orbit above Moscow. There were several things about the new Soviet satellite which were unusual. First, spectroscopic investigation of the signature of the satellite revealed the familiar tell-tale presence of nuclear material located in the aft section of the satellite. It was presumed (incorrectly, it later turned out) that this signature confirmed that the satellite was, indeed, powered by a small on-board thermo-nuclear reactor.
What did not make sense, though, was the fact that the power requirements, which American military analysts believed were needed to support the variety of functions being performed by the Soviet satellite, were believed to consume considerably more power than could possibly be produced by a nuclear reactor of the kind and size believed to be installed and operating on the satellite.
Further, the photographs revealed the presence of a peculiar kind of parabolic dish suspended from the nose of the satellite. It was shaped like the much larger satellite receiving dishes commonly used by television viewers in the West. The peculiar thing about this dish was that it was very small, less than three feet in diameter, and had a very flat parabolic surface. This meant that it did not focus the signals they presumed it received onto any boom-mounted collector or decoder device. No such device was mounted on or attached to the dish.
Finally, it appeared to be constructed of a material or combination of materials which was unknown at the time, but which appeared to be highly reflective, almost like a mirror. Interestingly enough, the dish was also apparently transparent to interstellar signals which originated behind it. For years it was believed that the strange parabolic device was a special kind of high-gain directional antenna. That assumption later proved to be totally false.
In fact, information recently supplied by the I.N. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science (IPMS), Kiev, Ukraine, to support several of its patent applications confirms that the dish was constructed of the same crystalline lattice material which is used to construct the interior of exceptional energy storage devices, but built with some very special features. The purpose of the device was to convert sunlight and other ambient wavelengths of energy into ion flow or electrical current, in sufficient amounts to maintain the electronic and other operational functions of the satellite. In the West we refer to devices which act this way as photo-voltaic devices or solar cells. The device which looked like a high-gain antenna dish was certainly a solar cell, but it was much more than that.
The quantum physics and the new technologies which made it possible to produce the crystalline lattice structure of the energy storage devices also made it possible to produce a similar crystalline structure which was capable of simultaneously converting wavelengths of widely varying characteristics into ionic flow or electrical current. The strategy employed by this revolutionary new material worked across almost the entire spectrum of known wave lengths, from far out in the realm of extra-low frequency long wave lengths propagated by the original Big Bang all the way up through the visible light spectrum and beyond, into X-rays and ultra-high frequency, ultra-short wavelength wave forms associated with pulsars, quasars and quantum singularities.
The quantum mechanics which describe the characteristics of the crystalline lattice structure recognize two distinct features of wave/particle propagation which are nowhere integrated in the linear quantum mechanics or solar cell technologies of the West. First, the characteristic of crystals which differentiates them from all other known material substances is that they resonate (or oscillate, to be more precise) at both primary and harmonic frequencies.
A crystal-based tuning fork which resonates at “A” natural will also resonate in sympathy with any harmonic of “A” natural propagated across the entire wave spectrum if the wave form is detectable and of sufficient intensity to activate the crystalline structure of the tuning fork.
The crystalline lattice of the Soviet solar cell was deliberately designed and constructed to resonate at all the harmonic frequencies of the entire wave length spectrum, as defined by six discrete bands which embrace all known wavelengths. These bands are each a harmonic of the next, and all of them cause excitation (oscillation) of the crystalline lattice structure at the same time.
This phenomenon reflects a new feature of quantum mechanics, instantaneous simultaneity of crystalline oscillation regardless of the distance of separation. The potential of this phenomenon in future applications is truly awesome. Properly harnessed, for example, this property of crystal structures as defined by the IPMS version of quantum mechanics could make it possible to communicate over vast distances with no time lag. The oscillation characteristics demonstrated by these structures operate outside the normal context of space-time.
This writer, Gary Vesperman, happens to be the inventor of a major advance in torsion field communications, made possible by these special crystalline lattice structures. The maximum theoretical capacity of torsion field communications apparently is 40 billion channels of three-dimensional holographic television through the entire earth without attenuation at one billion times the speed of light.
It has long been recognized in the West that oscillating crystal structures can be engineered to create a usable flow of ions in the form of low-voltage direct electrical current. However, instead of relying exclusively on light in the visible spectrum alone to create ion flow, the Soviet system operates on all known ambient wave lengths simultaneously, in six harmonic resonant bands. It creates ion flow wherever and whenever such wave forms are present. It means that these devices operate on ambient heat remaining in a room or in the dead of night when there is no visible light present at all.
One more feature distinguishes the Soviet material from the Western photo-voltaic or solar cell. The Western cell operates by trapping photons of light in a cleverly designed network of glass, mirrors and other inter-connected reflective materials which are deposited on a substrate of a dielectric material. When the volume of “photon” traffic striking the dielectric material reaches a minimal threshold, electrical current is created.
That is, when enough photons have been captured to excite the surface of the substrate by either directly impacting molecules on the substrate surface or by creating heat energy sufficient to cause those molecules to oscillate, ion flow is induced. It is not a particularly efficient method, but it is the best that has been devised in the West.
In the Soviet material, because photons are known to behave in precisely the same manner as electrons, the photons (which are present in all wave forms, including visible light) are simply introduced to the energy wells between the tips of the molecular pyramids on the sheets of crystal lattice which overlay each other. The material is so efficiently designed that it actually absorbs (here is another place where imprecise common language gets us into technical difficulty) the individual photons in the same way it accommodates electrons.
During the discharge cycle, when a circuit is open and available, the photons simply follow the path of least resistance, which is out through the crystalline lattice and into an electrical circuit, energy storage device, or some other similar application.
The Soviet solar panel operates at a nominal efficiency of no less than 51% in the least consistent pieces which have been tested in the United States. The best pieces have produced test results demonstrating operating efficiencies in excess of 80%. These devices/materials produce electrical current at a higher rate per unit of exposed surface area in the dark of night than the best solar panel ever produced in the West will generate in the most ideal sunlight conditions.
The simple circular device attached to the Soviet satellite was a single solar cell which was used to power the entire ship and all its functions. The nuclear fuel signature detected by the Atlantis crew was nothing more than the emissions produced by a piece of spent nuclear fuel placed on board the satellite, intended to mislead the American surveillance team. It worked.
Advanced solar photo-voltaic cells produced by Em-Tech Technologies of Toronto, Canada, have demonstrated actual hands-on efficiencies in laboratory applications of more than 50%. These cells are based on designs developed by the IPMS. Theoretical models have yielded energy production efficiencies of more than 80%. These cells operate on such wide band-widths and at such high efficiency rates that their performance characteristics in the dark of night exceed those demonstrated in broad daylight by the best current, state-of-the-art solar cells produced anywhere else in the world.
When applied to current global electric energy requirements for domestic, commercial, industrial and military use, the cost of electricity could be reduced to less than $.002 per kilowatt hour, with the added capability of operating not only in daylight but at reduced loads throughout the night, regardless of weather, on virtually any scale.
For comparison, the very best solar cells ever produced in the West have been produced by the Japanese. These cells operate at a maximum of 19% efficiency. That is, they convert as much as 19% of the ambient visible sunlight shining on a clear, cloudless day into ion flow, which then becomes low- voltage direct electrical current flowing through a circuit. The Japanese panels require months per section to manufacture and literally cost more than their weight in gold to manufacture. They are very heavy and are so sensitive to vibration and calibration that once installed, they cannot be moved at all.
Lantz Water and Power System
Robert Lantz invented his water purification Sonofloc System 77 for seawater desalination. He also began making new-energy system prototypes for other inventors in 1977 which culminated with his 1989 discovery of an "overunity" energy generation system. Combining his System 77 with an ultracentrifuge results in an overall device that not only purifies any kind of water but also produces sufficient heat to produce megawatts of electricity without any fuel at all – perhaps by "tapping the zero-point energy" with a kind of device the US Department of Energy in 1998 called "the Holy Grail of energy research".
The Lantz Water and Power System was first tested in 1989. It apparently can solve our global energy and water quality problems.
Liquid Electricity Engine
Richard Diggs, Custom Invention Agency, P.O. Box 11, Carthage, Missouri 64836; patent process on hold, though he has over two hundred other patents. Diggs developed at an inventors workshop (I.W. International) his "Liquid Electricity Engine" that he believed could power a large truck for 25,000 miles from a single portable unit of his electrical fuel. Liquid electricity violated a number of the well known physical laws that the inventor pointed out. The inventor was also aware of the profound impact the invention could have upon the world's economy – if it could be developed.
Hawking’s Generator of Cold Electricity
The Hawking’s Generator results from feeding high voltages oscillating at optimally 150,000 hertz to two 4-inch fluorescent lights. Each fluorescent tube has a strong permanent magnet attached to its center – north pole on one side, and south pole on the other side. The magnetic field between the two poles deflects the electrons in the tube off to one side. The tube is now no longer capable of generating hot electricity. Instead only cold electricity is extracted from the zero point energy field by the tube. The cold electricity comes from the other end of the tubes which are each wired to a brass electrode. A 6 to 8-inch white spark of cold electricity 4 inches in diameter is produced between the two brass balls. Apparently very little power is being drawn from the batteries. An equivalent-sized spark generated by an arc welder would require thousands of amperes and volts.
Cold electricity can not be measured with ordinary voltmeters and ammeters since there are no electrons. However, cold electricity can power lamps, etc. Totally different applications could result from the observation that materials inserted in a spark of cold electricity sometimes change to elements of higher density.
Gary Vesperman has a video of an earlier version of the Hawking’s generator where the dazzling white spark of cold electricity is only about the size of a peanut due to a much lower frequency being used. A weird “singing” noise heard in the video indicates that energy is being extracted from the omnipresent zero point energy field. Even Nicola Tesla himself long ago observed the same connection of singing noise to energy extraction.
The Hawking’s generator, although fairly simple and can completely be made with commonly available components, is still in its earliest stages of development. Gary Vesperman’s friend Henry Curtis was the one who brought the Hawking’s generator to Vesperman’s attention and provided him with a video. Curtis has been investigating and attending conferences on new energy technologies for over 15 years. Curtis thinks the Hawking’s generator is the most exciting fuel-less energy source he has ever seen. Vesperman has talked with some Las Vegas engineers about building their own prototype for testing.
Frankly, “cold electricity” is still very much a huge mystery. Gary Vesperman has a BS degree in electrical engineering from University of Wisconsin-Madison and has become familiar with all sorts of weird devices. Even he has no idea as to how mathematical formulas could be written describing the most fascinating phenomenon of cold electricity. Hot fusion has received billions of research dollars with no hope of a practical electricity generator for decades to come. Surely studies and development of cold electricity and new energy devices such as the Hawking’s generator are equally deserving of massive funding by the US government, if not more so than hot fusion.
Radiant Energy Pump/Electricity Generator
Thomas Henry Moray, Ph.D., (August 28, 1892 – May, 1974) was an inventor from Salt Lake City, Utah. Moray graduated from The Latter Day Saint's Business College. Moray studied electrical engineering through an international correspondence school course. He received a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Uppsala.
T. Henry Moray's research dates from the time he was 9 years old (1901). Over the 73 years of Moray's research, he left behind him a wealth of notes, not only pertaining to radiant energy, but a wide range of scientific research bordering all the way from the devulcanization of rubber, the influence of mineral reactions in the presence of high energy, bio-electronic effects (electrotherapy), sound pick up, solid-state physics, and finally the detection of energy that constituted the major endeavor of his work.
Moray was a pioneer in the field of electrical energy. As a youth he greatly admired Nikola Tesla and in particular was very interested in Tesla's obsession with the earth having a limitless supply of energy available to it from the universe. Like Tesla, Moray wanted to find out how to tap this energy. Like a lot of people he became amazed at the "crystal radio" where a crystal can be tapped with a fine wire to make a radio work – without any battery or power. Moray figured that if this was possible it should be possible to find a crystal (or "magnetic rock") that could be tapped for a power source.
Moray became very interested in the properties of certain rocks and crystal structures and the powders from them. He actually developed and utilized a transistor more than 20 years before anyone ever dreamed of such things. These solid materials are what he made his so-called Moray valves out of; they were like radio valves but were not using a heated coil like radio valves (also known as vacuum tubes in today’s terminology). They were all cold with no external power to feed them. They were a mixture of semi-conducting materials and intricate one-way conducting materials (diodes in today’s terminology). The Moray valve was therefore a solid-state device – unlike a radio valve that heated a plate to produce energy.
It is well documented that Moray developed a bipolar semiconductor as early as 1927. His germanium "valve" was working in 1931. In the 1930s Moray developed advanced semiconductors and transistor-like devices.
Moray provided a complete disclosure of his semi-conductor research to Dr. Harvey Fletcher of the Bell Laboratories. Dr. Fletcher later became head of the department at Bell Laboratories that developed the transistor. Moray, therefore, could be the true father of modern electronics since his work predated the Bell Laboratory bipolar transistor findings by at least 20 years.
During the 1930's T. Henry Moray was refused a patent on his cold semiconductor cathode because the patent examiner couldn't understand how it could emit electrons. The patent examiner reported that he could not allow the patent because he could not see how it would work since "the cathode had no means of being heated".
"He tried to patent his device, but the requests were denied because the item he called the "Moray valve' was too new a thought for the patent examiner. It was actually a germanium transistor, and solid states were unknown at the time." his son John Moray said. 20 years later the development of the transistor apparently proved that his device could actually have worked.
Both Nikola Tesla and Thomas Henry Moray consider harnessing cosmic energy (vacuum or zero point energy in today’s terminology) as the most practical method of producing energy yet discovered by man. Furthermore, they thought it is possible to utilize this vast source of energy from the universe without a prime mover at any point on the earth or in space – on the ground, in the air, on the water, under the water, or even underground.
Radiant energy is energy that is transported by waves. This includes energy transmission in the form of waves through space or various media. Radiant energy is also energy transferred through electromagnetic waves. Solar energy is a type of radiant energy. Radiant energy is the sum total of all the energy that comes to the earth from all the universe. The earth also reflects back radiant energy into the universe. Our sun directs electrically charged particles towards us. Radiant energy may be calculated by integrating or summing radiant power with respect to time. Radiant energy is usually expressed in joules.
During the 1920s Moray demonstrated a "radiant energy device" to many people who were unable to find a hidden power supply or batteries. Moray called his device a solid-state detector or the “Moray valve”. It basically comprised of a large antenna connected to a complex series of high-voltage capacitors, transformers, and semiconductors. By supposedly stimulating the existing oscillations of radiant energy from space, his device could generate electrical power without any man-made power input. By 1936, Moray had eventually engineered his device so that a 55-kilogram version could constantly produce 50 kilowatts of power for several days.
An electrical generator may be considered as not in the true sense a generator – as electricity is not made by the generator – but is merely an electrical pump. Moray’s radiant energy device may then be referred to as a cosmic ray pump: that is, a high-speed electron oscillator serving as a detector of cosmic radiations which causes a pumping action or surging within its circuitry. Moray used the term “radiant energy” to describe that source of energy coming from the cosmos to earth and radiating from the earth back to where it came. This is the energy the Moray device captures and could be described as those particles of energy pervading all space.
What sort of an apparatus is Moray's radiant energy device? Briefly, it would appear to be similar to a radio receiving set of power proportions.
An antenna is connected to a 29-stage solid-state collector material; a small rounded pellet mixture of triboluminescent zinc, a semiconductor material, a radioactive or fissile material, and germanium. The device contains two coils of wire, or inductances. It also contains several condensers, or capacitors, of different sizes. There is a detector tube, or electronic valve, and two oscillator tubes. Added to this is a "bar of silver and a bar of copper", a starting device, and a step-down electrical transformer, reported to be 1000-to-1, primary to secondary.
After tuning of the device the semiconductor material acts as a one-way gate (diode in modern terminology) for surges of high-frequency background atomic ion energy which can go through the material more readily in one direction than the other. For conversion of ionic to electromagnetic energy to then be transformed into useful electrical power by conventional radio circuitry and a transformer, the device must be grounded.
All of this was enclosed in a box measuring about 30 inches long by 16 inches wide by 16 inches high. It weighed about 30 kilograms. There were no moving parts. Moray said there are no dangerous radiations surrounding the box when it is in operation.
Moray’s 30-kilogram radiant energy device produced 4 kilowatts of cold electricity which was able to power light bulbs. However, electric motors require special winding to increase their efficiency. While commercially available electric motors will operate on the power from a radiant energy device, they are not as efficient as motors running on ordinary commercial currents. Moray says when his motors are running in the dark they glow with a violet aura. His motors ran cold!
It has been estimated that using current dielectric technology that a 50-kilogram radiant energy device could be built to produce 300 kilowatts – sufficient to power buildings and also electric vehicles.
Some persons who have seen radiant energy power lights say the bulbs look as if they were filled entirely with white light, as if the gas itself which fill the bulbs were fully incandescent. Moray believes this to be true.
Radiant energy will heat electric flat irons and other electrical heating devices. It is claimed heating capacities are reached much more quickly with radiant energy than with commercial currents, and are considerably hotter than when powered with ordinary electric energy.
One photograph shows Moray demonstrating his generator as it powers 50 100-watt light bulbs and a 655-watt Hotpoint iron. Thus he proved that his radiant energy device was not running off batteries – as his detractors said it did.
By 1936 he had developed a generating unit that weighed about 55 pounds and was capable of producing as much as 50 kilowatts of power on a steady basis.
On several hundred occasions Dr. Moray lighted a bank of 35 light bulbs with power from his simple but ingenious radiant energy device. There were 20 150-watt bulbs on the panel. At the same time the generator powered a 600-watt glow heater and a 575-watt flat iron.
Moray, as Nikola Tesla before him, was unsuccessful in introducing his devices working on this principle. Some report that his secret was forgotten. Moray tried for several patents to no avail.
These valves are ONE reason why patents were continually refused – as he was told "there is no such thing as free energy".
"You must put energy in to get it out." As patents were applied for, there were refusals due to the fact that the patent applied for "infringed other patents". Even thought Moray patiently wrote details of how this could not be, the US Patent Office refused to allow any.
On the other hand, Moray gradually had perfected his device's output from a capacity to light one small incandescent light bulb to a present capacity claimed to be 50 kilowatts. Fifty kilowatts represents about 67 horsepower and, certainly, 67 horsepower is not to be disregarded. Many small factories do not use as much as 67 horsepower.
According to Moray, one of his radiant energy devices can be built for about $800 (year is unknown as there has been considerable inflation). Mass production methods might cut this price in half. Under these circumstances, a unit in a home would bring about a substantial saving in power bills over several years time.
As many as 100 persons have witnessed radiant energy demonstrations. Radiant energy, as it emerges from the Moray apparatus, may be considered a form of electricity. It is an alternating current, but an alternating current of very high frequency.
If a photograph of a single bulb lighted with radiant energy is taken the print shows a large, dark ring, perpendicular to the base of the bulb. This ring looks like a circle of translucent black fog. It seems the light somehow reflects itself on the air, or projects a shadow of itself there.
In 1940 Moray demonstrated before the members of the Public Utilities Commission (in Utah?) his free energy generator. It maintained a continuous output of 250,000 volts with no apparent input.
Trombly-Kahn Closed-Path Homopolar Generator
During the early 1980’s Adam Trombly and Joseph Kahn, Ph.D., co-invented the Trombly-Khan closed-path homopolar generator which has an output power exceeding its power input by a factor of 4.92. The patent application and drawings represent the result of the expenditure of $290,000 in two phases.
In 1989 Adam Trombly proposed the retrofitting of the Four Corners coal-fired power plant with an advanced Trombly-Khan closed path homopolar motor-generator. Trombly and Farnsworth estimated that the cost of such an advanced electrical generator to be approximately the cost of installing smoke scrubbers on one coal-fired generating unit. (Sources: http://www.rexresearch.com/trombly/trombly.htm and http://www.broandrew.com/suppression.html.)
Trombly-Farnsworth Solid-State Oscillating Electromagnetic System
Adam Trombly also co-invented with David Farnsworth the Trombly-Farnsworth solid-state oscillating electromagnetic system. In June of 1989 Adam Trombly and David Farnsworth of Zero Point Technologies, Inc., demonstrated a solid-state resonant device which physically produced over fifty times greater electrical output than input at the Church of the Holy Covenant just prior to a major address by Trombly at Dag Hammarskjöld Auditorium in the United Nations. The demonstration had originally been scheduled to coincide with Trombly's address.
(References: June-December 2006 emails by Adam Trombly and Bruce Meland to Gary Vesperman. “In Search of Quantum Motors and Generators” by Bruce Meland, Electrifying Times, Spring-Summer 2006, Vol. 10, No. 1, http://www.electrifyingtimes.com. The book “The Coming Energy Revolution” by Jeane Manning. Tom Bearden’s web site http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/080301.htm.)
9/25/1997 11:16 AM
From: Robert Bass
To: James Bowery;
CC: Robert W. Bass;Gary Vesperman;
Subject: for the postulated “Bass page”?
I just went to http://www.generalstore.com/ and see nothing but “under construction, etc.” Is this you, or someone else in another state? Do you know how to (reasonably economically) do Mass-eMailings? Say either from a rented Data Base of known Investors, or just blindly to “millions”?
How about posting the following
Potentially Awesome Speculative Investment Opportunity?
Venture SEED Capital? Low Risk, AWESOME Payback!!!
I seek one or more High-Technology-Oriented “High-Roller” Nerves Investor(s) who would be intrigued by the following proposition (if demonstrably sound and absolutely genuine): Suppose you go to “Super Monte-Carlo” in the sovereign nation of Erehwon, and you come to a table with a Croupier who says:
“I have here a coin the size of a U.S. silver dollar, which is perfectly evenly balanced between Heads and Tails to 10 decimal places [with the edge for Heads in the 11th decimal place]; and a certificate from the US Bureau of Standards certifying it is not “loaded” to favor either Heads or Tails to the best measurements they can make.
“You can flip the coin yourself.
“I have here Certificates of Deposit for $30 Billion in a centuries-old Swiss Bank of spotless reputation.
“My croupier’s fee for allowing you to play is ridiculously modest.
“How much are you willing to wager on the honest flip?
“Now suppose the preceding scenario is repeated, except that several of the most reputable scientists in the world assure you that the coin is ‘loaded’ so that the chances of Heads are between 95% and 99%. Your own experts assure you that you have at worst One Chance in 20 of losing.
“Finally, the croupier says, you may play for $150,000.”
To recapitulate, the odds are 20-to-1 that you will win $30 Billion, versus one chance in 20 that your entire $150,000 wager will be lost.
Would you play?
——(NOT a Publication)——–
I need Seed Capital of $150,000 under circumstances exactly analagous to those outlined in the Risk/Reward scenario above. If “Heads” comes up, then my patented Plasmasphere technology can be escalated to a Metamatter technology, where by METAMATTER I mean a solid, crystallized fully-ionized plasma.
An ordinary crystal has nuclei spaced apart distances of about 10^[-8] cm, the Bohr radius, because the electron cloud makes the atoms behave like little billiard balls of the size indicated.
However, in a plasma, the positively-charge nuclei and the electrons are equal in number, but the electrons are not in orbit around individual nuclei; they are “mixed up” as in a plum-pudding. Most plasma physicists will tell you that in order for hydrogen gas to be fully ionized (i.e., all electrons stripped from all nuclei) the temperature of the gas would have to be above 150,000 degrees Kelvin (i.e., 15 times hotter than the surface of the Sun). But this is demonstrably FALSE (both theoretically and experimentally).
If the gas is dense enough, it can be fully ionized at “low” temperatures, e.g. 5000 Kelvins [so-called “pressure ionization”].
Now suppose that the fully ionized low-temperature gas is condensed into the physical state of a liquid metal. I call this a Liquid Metallic Plasmoid (LMP). The characteristic of an LMP is that, like mercury, it keeps a constant volume; unlike a gas, it does not expand to fill all available space (if in a vacuum). The positive nuclei remain on average equidistant, and the electrons circulate around the dynamic lattice as in a giant crystalline molecule. Cook called it a “Cryscapade”; whereas others might call it a Liquid Crystal.
Fewer than a score people in the world understand that LMPs can exist. One LMP was photographed in half a dozen or so photos on the cover of the Journal of Applied Physics in 1957 by [later] Nitro-Nobel Medalist, physical chemist, Dr. Melvin Cook. The theory by which Cook explained his accidental discovery has been independently rediscovered (in 3 separate countries, USA, UK & France) by researchers seeking to explain the illusive natural phenomenon of Ball Lighting.
The late expert on High-Energy Lasers and Shock Tubes, Dr. Jay Blauer of Rockwell Rocketdyne, who died early of leukemia, helped me to design an experiment that would prove beyond shadow of a doubt that LMPs can be created at will. The basic idea is to use a combination of Shock Tube technology and High-Energy Laser technology, with my patented Plasmasphere technology, in order to achieve in a non-self-destructive, reusable device, what Cook discovered accidentally with high-explosives in a self-destructive experiment.
Once the mere EXISTENCE of producible-at-will LMPs is achieved (for the Risk Capital of $150K), it will be trivially easy to raise several million more for refinement of the device to move the LMP into a cryogenic vacuum chamber where (since it is electrically conductive) it can be magnetically levitated and allowed to cool by radiation.
Use of the Brush-Sahlin-Teller Equation of State (used to design the H-bomb) shows that as the LMP cools, its volume contracts, and it becomes more and more dense. There can be shown to scientists sufficiently expert to understand the evidence, a mass of recent experimental evidence (as well as expert theoretical evidence) that before the LMP gets down to room temperature it will crystallize into a Metastable Solid Crystal, namely a new form of matter never seen before on Earth!!!
The density will be intermediate between that of ordinary condensed matter and that of neutron stars, wherein a teaspoonful weighs tons.
I propose to manufacture 3 kinds of Micro-Crystals of Metamatter: MSP, MSD, and MSD. Each addresses in a truly revolutionary way a trillion-dollar market, with a multi-billion dollar profit potential. In many ways, Metamatter will have a bigger impact on human civilization than any prior discovery, including both computers and atomic energy! In fact, consider the following:
MSP (Meta-Stable Protium [hydrogen]) will be the IDEAL room-temperature Superconductor, which will revolutionized both the Computer/Electronics industry and the Electric Power industry.
MSD (Meta-Stable Deuterium [heavy-hydrogen]) will be the ideal 5th Generation Cold Fusion fuel; when triggered by an infra-red photon of 17.7 eV, a micro-pellet will undergo a phonon-mediated and Lattice-Catalyzed ANEUTRONIC chain-fusion reaction to cleanly release the energy of 10 sticks of dynamite, to make steam for mechanical heat and conversion at 67% efficiency into electrical energy. This can make both homes and automobiles independent of the present electrical utility companies, though they will still need to buy the almost dirt-cheap MSD fuel micro-pellets from Metamatter Industries.
MSH (Meta-Stable Helium) will be the IDEAL rocket propellant for expanding human civilization into the Solar System (e.g. to colonize Mars); when a micro-crystal of MSH is triggered by the right frequency of laser-light, it will return to the form of gas as if it had been compressed by tens of millions of atmospheres of pressure; it will release 43 times more energy per unit weight than any conceivable chemical combination!
During the mid 1980s, the Air Force Systems Command sent a group of 7 or 8 Colonels who held Doctorates in the physical or engineering sciences to scour the USA for 9 months, in groups of 2 or 3, and to report back on what futuristic technology would have the greatest potential impact on the USAF and USA economy by the year 2000 if reduced to actual practice. They listened to 600 industrial and academic presentations and selected MSH as the greatest payoff (for least risk) choice! The USAF Rocket Propulsion Lab was supposed to issue 8 parallel contracts for 8 “crash” projects to see if bulk MSH could be manufactured. I was slated to get one of the 8 contracts, but my approach (through solidifying a helium LMP) was radically different from that of the other 7 selected proposers.
With MSH as fuel, one could take a 50 percent payload to Mars and back in two weeks! (Accelerate there and return at one gee.)
But a Princeton professor of Physics, Will Happer, then Secretary of the JASONS [advisers to DOD/DOE], advanced theoretical arguments which appeared to shoot down the practicality of the other 7 approaches, and the whole project was canceled. But Happer’s arguments are totally irrelevant to my approach. Moreover, Happer was later Chief Scientific Advisor to Admiral Watkins (Secretary of DOE) when the ERAB Report was produced.
Those who understand the recent work of Arata and Zhang in which the aneutronic conversion of deuterium nuclei to helium nuclei inside of a palladium lattice is recorded in Real Time (inside of a sealed apparatus which contains a Mass-Spectrometer and which give ZERO helium when the heavy-water deuterium is replaced by ordinary-water hydrogen) know that Aneutronic Cold Fusion (CF) is a demonstrable FACT and that Happer and the ERAB Report were WRONG. Therefore it is logical to consider the possibility that Happer was also wrong when, before he shot down CF, he also shot down MSH.
There is ZERO risk in producing an LMP; it is just that 99.999% of all scientists are ignorant of Cook’s work.
There is a slight technical risk in crystallizing an LMP at room-temperature; conceivably, it will remain liquid until below the temperature of liquid nitrogen, in which case my proposal will have been a failure. But the payoff is so AWESOME, and the chances of failure so tiny, that the risk seems worth taking.
I can supply drawings of the Proof-of-Principle Process Prototype Plasmasphere demonstration designed by Dr. Blauer and myself. Jay Blauer told me that he could do the experiment in his spare time evenings and weekends “in two weeks” using shock-tube and laser equipment already in his lab at Rocketdyne, provided he had $10,000 cash for items and materials not on hand.
Several “reputable” labs have explained to me that they would not even consider bidding on doing the Bass-Blauer experiment for less than $100,000. I have personal contacts at 22 government and private labs (such as JPL, SRI, LANL, etc.) which I would like to visit with my former graduate student Dr. Lou Puls (who, unlike me, is an accomplished experimental plasma physicist) to make joint presentations on the theoretical and experimental aspects of creation of an LMP, preparatory to asking them to bid. After 22 weeks spent in such visits, (and paying Dr. Puls Consulting Fees) I expect to have $50,000 left to offer the Highest Bidder. I also expect that no one will bid less than $100,000. But I also expect that out of the 22 presentations, at least several will become so excited that they will offer to Cost Share. In several labs, the working-level scientists interested in LMPs have told me, “If you can get the Management to pay attention, we have in place already a mechanism and a precedent to Cost Share.”
Remembering what happened to Fleischmann and Pons it will accomplish naught for me to take the $150K, rent the equipment, and do it in my own garage. Nobody will believe it, and nobody will pay any attention. However, if we spend 6 months getting suitable technical personnel of nationally reputable laboratories excited about the subject of LMPs, and then some lab with the prestige of, say, JPL or LANL or SRI, announces the production of an LMP, many other labs will immediately undertake to “catch up” and to replicate the result at their own expense. Once 3 or 4 labs have announced successful replication, no one will doubt and then it will be trivially easy to raise the venture capital to go from LMPs to solid, crystallized Metamatter micro-crystals of MSP, MSD, and MSH.
I can supply a large amount of written technical material to anyone who is interested in raising the $150,000 seed capital required to get Metamatter Industries off the ground (and for me to file the pioneering Patent Applications, and since I am now licensed to practice Intellectual Property Law before the PTO I can do it myself at no extra expense – as did the physicist/patent-attorney who invented the Xerox process).
This will be BETTER than getting in on the ground floor of Xerox or Polaroid or Microsoft!
Robert W. Bass, M.A. Oxon, Ph.D.
Dr. Robert W. Bass, Registered Patent Agent 29,130 [ex-Prof Physics]
Inventor: Topolotron, Plasmasphere, issued; QRT Cold Fusion, pending
P.O.Box 1238, Pahrump, NV 89041-1238; phone/FAX (702) 751-0932/0739
Voice-Mail: (702) 387-7213 e-Mail: email@example.com
XXX Venture Partners
Have you got your ___________ Fund off the ground yet? Did you receive the Proposal I sent you last week?
Do you agree that the logic of the Analogy I used for the proposed Low-Risk, AWESOME Payoff, “Proof-of-Principle” (POP) Experiment is sound? If a rational Investor were convinced (e.g. by the photos published by Nitro-Nobel Medalist, Melvin Cook) that it is possible to put a plasma in the state of liquid metal (Liquid Metallic Plasmoids, or LMPs), and that the ONLY risk is that when cooled to room temperature they will not yet crystallize [but won’t crystallize until down below, e.g.. the temperature of liquid nitrogen], which risk will be taken by OPM [Other People’s Money] when the scientific community realizes that LMPs can be created at will, and that there is ZERO risk in performing the proof-of-principle demonstration experiment to convince them of this fact, and that this can be done for as little as $150,000 (which will also permit Patent Applications ensuring the inside track when LMPs get crystallized), don’t you agree that the Reward to Risk Ratio of $3 X 10^/$1.5 X 10^ = 2 X 10^ multiplied by the probability of crystallization at room temperature (which is supported by hundreds of theoretical papers on MSH and at least one recent paper in Physical Review Letters on MSP, as much, much better than 50%), namely an EXPECTED REWARD/RISK RATIO of more than 100,000-to-1 implies that this Proposal is “better” than any proposal made in this field yet, when you note that each of the 3 main products to be manufactured from crystallized LMPs, namely MSP, MSD, and MSH, EACH separately addresses a different Trillion-Dollar Market with a clear Profit Potential of more than $10 Billion?
Moreover, this is a Proposal in which the Investor who RISKS $150K will know within a mere 6 or 7 months WHETHER OR NOT Phase One of his speculation has paid off! (And it is highly likely that the Absolute Answer will be known within another 3 months, considering how fast the scientific community reacts to something, e.g. High-Temperature Superconductors, which is both surprising and EASY to replicate!)
Please tell me when a Speculative Investment Possibility better than this one has last crossed your desk? (I’ll bet, NEVER!)
Dr. Robert W. Bass, Registered Patent Agent 29,130 [ex-Prof Physics]
Inventor: Topolotron, Plasmasphere, issued; QRT Cold Fusion, pending
P.O.Box 1238, Pahrump, NV 89041-1238; phone/FAX (702) 751-0932/0739
Voice-Mail: (702) 387-7213 e-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Electrino Fusion Power Reactor
Gordon L. Ziegler has discovered how to make a clean electrino fusion power reactor capable of generating up to a net of 1880 megawatts of DC electricity. The proposed energy source would produce no carbon emissions and no radioactive wastes. (By reversing the order-to-disorder arrow in the second law of thermodynamics, a $50,000,000 electrino fusion power reactor could be built which would also reverse all aging, disease, and decay processes within a one-mile radius.)
Power output, however, cannot occur in this system without the simultaneous operation of two aspects of the invention. One is an accelerator-collider making a field reversing the order-to-disorder arrow in the second law of thermodynamics in a controlled area. Among other things, that field makes the other aspect of the system (the power source) efficient enough to be self-sustaining and prevents the formation of radioactive wastes.
Electrons are generally regarded to be structure-less spinning point charges. But that contradicts a reasonable postulate that occurred to Gordon L. Ziegler in 1967: “A spherically or cylindrically symmetric smooth charge distribution cannot have detectable spin.” Electrons have detectable spins. Therefore they must not have smooth structure-less symmetric charge distributions. They must be lumpy and have internal structure. An application of the Parsimony Principle shows that they must be composed of two half-charges orbiting each other at the speed of light. The reason scientists concluded that the electron was structure-less was that it could not be blasted apart in collisions up to 700 MeV each particle.
But in Ziegler’s model, electron sub-particles are bound together by confinement by a speed of light barrier (they are trapped going faster than the speed of light). They cannot be blasted apart, even though they are two particles.
The two sub-particles of electrons make a whole different structure for matter than quarks and leptons. The sub-particles can also fuse with each other – making new particles. Fusing sub-particles of positrons reverses the order-to-disorder arrow in the second law of thermodynamics – making the power source efficient enough to be self-sustaining and preventing the radioactive wastes from forming. Fusing the sub-particles of electrons comprise the power source.
Key components include a polarized positron source, injector accelerators, inflection magnets, end magnets, and the beam transport.
Governments and utilities would buy electrino fusion power reactors because the process is a clean, inexpensive way to produce electricity. It is 1000 times as efficient as nuclear reactors. It does not require uranium or plutonium for fuel. It can run on anything for fuel such as dirt, sand, sewage, ground garbage, toxic chemicals, radioactive wastes, sea water, etc. without carbon nor radioactive pollutants.
Assume that the collision energy were 940 MeV to avoid unwanted heat (operate at room temperature), and the current in each beam was 1.0 ampere of electrons. The energy investment into the electrino fusion would be 1880 megawatts. The energy released in annihilation photons would be 3760 megawatts. Recoverable net power would be 1880 megawatts or less.
The collision energy of the linear accelerator would be 940 Mev (each particle – 1880 MeV in the center of mass frame). The current in each beam would be 1.0 amperes of electrons. There would be two beams 180 degrees from each other.
The energy released in annihilation photons would be 3760 megawatts. “Annihilation photons” are the 940 MeV X-Rays produced when a negatron annihilates a proton. These X-rays are converted to electricity by order-to-disorder arrow reversed photo-voltaic cells with nearly 100% efficiency.
In summary the 3760 megawatts output of annihilation photons would be converted to electricity. However, in order to keep the electrino fusion reaction going, 1880 megawatts would be taken from the 3760 megawatts to power the linear accelerator. The net energy output would thus be 1880 megawatts-electric.
The size of an electrino fusion reactor would be about 80 ‘ x 10′ x 10′. The fuel is whatever brass or copper James M. Potter uses in constructing the walls of his linear accelerators. James M. Potter, Ph.D., is President, JP Accelerator Works, Inc., 2245 47th Street, Los Alamos, NM 87544, 505-690-8701 or 888-301-2833 or 505-661-8155, email@example.com, http://www.jpaw.com. 155 lbs of brass would be consumed over 100 years before shutdown for refueling. The linear accelerator would be a standard commercially available model. It would not need to be customized for an electrino fusion reactor.
The smallest electrino fusion reactor that would be possible to build is now about 80′ x 10′ x 10’. It may eventually be the size of a filing cabinet.
The projected cost of the first 1880-megawatt electrino fusion reactor is approximately $100 million. This clean source of electricity could be built in two years, and the necessary Refresher built in one year. Electricity could be generated for only about 1.5 percent of current rates (a little over 0.1 cent per kwh). Subsequent clean energy sources can be built for $37.5 million each.
The 1880 megawatts (net) of electricity generated by an electrino fusion power reactor would be Direct Current (DC). A utility would need thick wires and the biggest busbars and transformers on the planet. Conversion from DC to Alternating Current (AC) would require the world’s largest inverters.
The electrino fusion reactor requires the Refresher to be self-sustaining. But the Refresher has several positive medical side effects due to reversing the order-to-disorder arrow that cannot be eliminated – in a controlled area reverse adult aging and wipe out diseases.
Size of accelerator 20 meters long by 3 meters wide
Diameter of channels 4 cm (maybe a little more
to allow for water cooling
Type of accelerator Folded linear accelerator
with pulsed klystron RF power supplies and S-band cavities
RF power supplies Eight 35 to 50-megawatt pulsed
duty factor 0.1% (peak current 1000
times average current)
Average power 400 kW (20 kW per meter of
klystron efficiency ~50%
total system power 800 kW
cooling water requirement for each 5 m section 5 to 10 gpm
cooling water required by each klystron ~ 5 gpm
cooling towers capacity 800 kW
Linear accelerator $12 million
Klystrons $ 8 million
Klystron power supplies and cooling towers $ 2 million
Magnets and their power supplies $ 2 million
System with controls $ 8 million
10% contingency $ 3.2 million
Builder’s cost $35.2 million
Other budgeted items $14.8 million
Total budgeted $50 million
Creation time total 3 years
Design time (beam dynamics, rf power systems,
cooling, and computer control) 1 year
Fabrication and subassembly testing 18 months
Installation and commissioning 6 months
(The following chapter is taken from Formulating the Universe, Volume II, by Gordon Ziegler, Chapter 7. Copyrighted by Benevolent Enterprises 2004. Used with permission.)
SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Everything goes from a state of order to more disorder. Brand new automobiles wear out and rust. Objects break or are damaged. A thermos bottle falls off the counter, and the inner glass bottle is shattered. We do not expect the shattered bottle to fall back up to the counter and become whole again. There is a one-way arrow for the events to transpire. That arrow is the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
Houses grow old and fall into decay. Barns fall down. Fruit spoils, people and animals grow old and die. Viruses mutate. People become ill and die. Crime and disorder in society increase. Homes break up. Aborted fetuses disintegrate. Dead people and things decompose. All of these negative occurrences are the outworking of the second law of thermodynamics – that part of which is an arrow making everything go from order to disorder.
Let us consider what other people have written about the second law of thermodynamics.
“Second law of thermodynamics
“An equilibrium macrostate of a system can be characterized by a quantity S (called entropy) which has the following properties:
“(i) In any infinitesimal quasi-static process in which the system absorbs heat dQ, its entropy changes by an amount
where T is a parameter characteristic of the macrostate of the system and is called its absolute temperature.
“(ii) In any process in which a thermally isolated system changes from one macrostate to another, its entropy tends to increase, i.e.,
“The relation (7-1) is important because it allows one to determine entropy differences by measurements of absorbed heat and because it serves to characterize the absolute temperature T of a system. The relation (7-2) is significant because it specifies the direction in which nonequilibrium situations tend to proceed.”1
The above expression of the second law of thermodynamics is regarding entropy and heat. Other writers include the order-to-disorder arrow in the second law of thermodynamics.
“It is a matter of common experience that disorder will tend to increase if things are left to themselves. (One has only to stop making repairs around the house to see that!) One can create order out of disorder (for example, one can paint the house), but that requires expenditure of effort or energy and so decreases the amount of ordered energy available.
“A precise statement of this idea is known as the second law of thermodynamics. It states that the entropy of an isolated system always increases, and that when two systems are joined together, the entropy of the combined system is greater than the sum of the entropies of the individual systems. For example, consider a system of gas molecules in a box. The higher the temperature of the gas, the faster the molecules move, and so the more frequently and harder they collide with the walls of the box and the greater the outward pressure they exert on the walls. Suppose that initially the molecules are all confined to the left-hand side of the box by a partition. If the partition is then removed, the molecules will tend to spread out and occupy both halves of the box. At some later time they could, by chance, all be in the right half or back in the left half, but it is overwhelmingly more probable that there will be roughly equal numbers in the two halves. Such a state is less ordered, or more disordered, than the original state in which all the molecules were in one half. One therefore says that the entropy of the gas has gone up. Similarly, suppose one starts with two boxes, one containing oxygen molecules and the other containing nitrogen molecules. If one joins the boxes together and removes the intervening wall, the oxygen and nitrogen molecules will start to mix. At a later time the most probable state would be a fairly uniform mixture of oxygen and nitrogen molecules throughout the two boxes. This state would be less ordered, and hence have more entropy, than the initial state of two separate boxes.”2
“The explanation that is usually given as to why we don’t see broken cups gathering themselves together off the floor and jumping back onto the table is that it is forbidden by the second law of thermodynamics. This says that in any closed system disorder, or entropy, always increases with time. In other words, it is a form of Murphy’s law: Things always tend to go wrong! An intact cup on the table is a state of high order, but a broken cup on the floor is a disordered state. One can go readily from the cup on the table in the past to the broken cup on the floor in the future, but not the other way round.
“The increase of disorder or entropy with time is one example of what is called an arrow of time, something that distinguishes the past from the future, giving a direction to time.”3
B. Electrino Model and 2nd Law
The natural tendency of leptons in beta decay is that the parent lepton combines with one or more gravitons to produce more particles. In all natural reactions, the order energy of the resultant particles is less than or equal to the order energy of the original particles.
1. Negative Energies. Let us consider antimatter more carefully. “In the Dirac theory also, the permissible energy values for a free particle range from +mc2 to + and from -mc2 to – . The first of these results is of course just what we expect for a free particle – that its total energy can have any value greater than its rest energy. But the second result is quite puzzling, since it implies the existence of states of negative total energy.”4 Anderson in 1932 discovered positrons in cosmic radiation. These were regarded as Dirac’s negative energy particles. “The first two solutions of the Dirac equation . . . clearly describe a free electron of energy E and momentum p. The two negative energy electron solutions . . . are to be associated with the antiparticle, the positron.”5
However, in the annihilation it is not (+mc2) + (-mc2) = 0, but 2mc2 is the result of annihilation.6 There is something strange going on with the minus signs in these equations. The calculations are inconsistent.
Maybe there are two kinds of energy considered. One we can call entropy energy ES. In the annihilation reaction, +mc2 + -mc2 = 2mc2. Entropy energy is the higher value. The other energy is order energy EO. In order energy the same reaction is (+mc2) + (-mc2) = 0.
Let us consider entropy energy and order energy for particle decay schemes. There are a few decay schemes where no negative order energy (anti-matter) is introduced in the right hand side of the decay schemes. In those few instances, the final order energy is equal to the initial order energy (when kinetic energy is taken into account). But in most cases, a trace of negative order energy (anti-matter) is introduced into the right side of the decay schemes. There is nothing on the left hand sides of the decay schemes to correspond to this addition of a trace of negative order energy on the right sides of the decay schemes. Therefore, total order energy is less on the right hand sides of the decay schemes than on the left hand sides (if only by a trace). A few decay schemes introduce a lot of antimatter (as K-) on the right side of the decay scheme. The loss of order energy in the systems is greater in those cases. But in every case, for all natural processes, the order energy final is the order energy initial, or
Let us check the order energy for electron electrino fusion reactions. Electrons made energetic by acceleration (as heavy as protons) fuse and form anti-protons. Matter is converted to anti-matter. Entropy energy is conserved, but not so order energy. Order energy is reduced in the extreme from +938 MeV to -938 MeV or more for each electron fused (two electrons are fused in each reaction). The order-to-disorder arrow for electron electrino fusion points in the usual direction. The system does obey the second law of thermodynamics.
2. Reversing the Order-to-Disorder Arrow. What would happen if we fused the electrino constituents of positrons instead of the electrino constituents of electrons? Entropy energy ES would again be conserved. Entropy would be increased. However, order energy EO would go from -2 x 938 MeV to +2 x 938 MeV – from disorder to order. The order-to-disorder arrow would be reversed. This would be a reaction that would be prohibited by the second law of thermodynamics – unless the strong gravitational force that fuses the anti-semions would be stronger than the second law of thermodynamics (which otherwise governs weak interactions). The stronger of the strong gravitational force and the second law of thermodynamics should be determined by experiment. More rides on that one experiment than perhaps on any one other experiment in this generation. If it is found that strong gravity is stronger than the second law of thermodynamics, then order can be restored at first in a small area, and then for the whole earth.
Here we see that the entropy arrow of time and the order-to-disorder arrow of time are separate and distinct, and are not one and the same thing. While all the reactions the author has studied increase entropy, the fusion of positron anti-semions reverses the order-to-disorder arrow, making more order out of the disorder.
Positron constituent electrino fusion might not only take the electrinos from disorder to order. It could make other physical processes in a local area go from disorder to order. The positron fusion not only violates the second law of thermodynamics, it reverses the order-to-disorder arrow of that law in a local area, making other processes in that area reverse. Let us consider that process more to see how it might be regulated.
We guess the desired relationships for reversing the order-to-disorder arrow in the second law of thermodynamics through dimensional analysis. We want to solve for r, the maximum radius in which the reversed law would be effective. There is a way we can obtain a length from combinations of our variables and constants. That way is in the right hand side of Eq. (7-4). The whole expression is the thermodynamic relation we are seeking. The thermodynamic relation is:
where Eo is the order energy – the positive or negative energy in the pair production of particles; ΔEo is the change in the order energy, where (ΔEo)t is the change in the total order energy of the system, and where (ΔEo)1 is the change in the order energy for a single source reaction – for a positron fusion reaction it is approximately 2 x 109 eV/collision x 1.6 x 10-19 joules/eV = 3.2 x 10-10 joules/collision; c is the speed of light – approximately 3.0 x 108 m/s; we shall solve for the effected radius r; i is the beam current in each beam in Coulombs per second (we will solve for 10-11); k is the ratio of particle energy to particle charge. This energy per charge is the accelerated energy of the particle (roughly 1 x 109 ev times 1.6 x 10-19 joules/ev = 1.6 x 10-10 joules) divided by the charge of each positron (q = 1.6 x 10-19 coulombs), which equals 109 joules per coulomb. The collision efficiency eff is not needed in this equation, because the result is not in particles, but is already in collisions.
Incredibly, the lower the current, the bigger is the radius of the affected area. The greater the current, the smaller is the radius of the effected area. With 10-11 A beam currents, the effected radius r solves for 9.6 meters – roughly 10 meters, which describes a small area – less than a tenth of an acre.
To get an idea of the positron beam currents needed to reverse the order-to-disorder arrow of the second law of thermodynamics in what size of affected radius, see Table 7-1 below.
For an area the size of r beam current
House 10 m 10 pA
four football fields 100 m 1 pA
community 1 km 100 fA
city 10 km 10 fA
Israel 160 km 0.6 fA
U.S. 2,400 km 0.04 fA
World 13,000 km 0.008 fA
Sun 1.7E11 m 6E-22 A
Table 7-1. Beam currents versus affected radius for reversal of the order-to-disorder arrow of the second law of thermodynamics.
We must make sure that reversing the second law will do only good and not evil before we flip the switch. Inspired evidences will be studied in the next chapter on a wide range of phenomena affected by reversing the order-to-disorder arrow in the second law of thermodynamics.
1F. Reif, Statistical Physics, Berkeley Physics Course–Volume 5 (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1967), p. 283.
2Stephen Hawking, A Brief History of Time–From the Big Bang to Black Holes (New York: Bantam Books, 1988), pp. 102, 103.
3Ibid., pp. 144, 145.
4Robert B. Leighton, Principles of Modern Physics (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc, 1959), p. 665.
5Francis Halzen, Alan D. Martin, Quarks and Leptons (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1984), p. 107.
6David S. Saxon, Elementary Quantum Mechanics (San Francisco: Holden-Day, 1968), p. 386.
(End of Chapter 7)
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF BUSINESS PLAN
electrino energy is a new company formed to develop the inventions envisioned by the new model of physics—the electrino fusion model of elementary particles. Our company provides theoretical work and guidance to licensees. Our focus is the reverser of aging, disease, and decay processes (Refresher 1) and whatever else we must do to fund the Refresher 1.
electrino energy was formed October 12, 2005 as an invention development and theorist service specializing in four high-technology inventions – inertia-less craft; artificial gravities; reverser of aging, disease, and decay processes; and electrino fusion reactors generating electricity. All four inventions have potentially extremely high value. But all four inventions currently have three principle difficulties: 1) they are unbelievable by almost all persons – including agency heads, venture capitalists, congressmen and senators; 2) almost all of them cost scores of millions of dollars to develop; and 3) electrino energy has no money to develop them. With no capital and no revenue stream or other assets to fall back on, electrino energy cannot even get a guaranteed loan.
But electrino energy is not resource-less and in a hopeless condition. It has three principal approaches that it can take to resolve this dilemma:
1) Though the aging reverser is the most urgently needed, a miniature inertia-less craft can be constructed for a whole lot less money. It should be possible to construct one for a few hundred dollars borrowed from friends. But that technology could be licensed for hundreds of millions of dollars – enough to finance all the four high-tech inventions.
2) As a back-up to that approach, venture capital angels could be approached to advance the money to finance the reverser of aging, disease, and decay processes. This invention is not only high tech, but medical. The other inventions could be developed at a later time.
3) As a back-up to that approach, the owner could pursue his particle theory, predicting the masses of particles. That may be difficult, but not impossible. This would do what no other physical theory can do. Such a feat would be publishable, arousing interest among scientists for creating a facility to test the model – opening the way for government funding of the high-tech inventions.
A master decision tree flow chart linking and employing these three alternatives for funding the development of the inventions is in Section 7.0 Financial Plan.
According to alternative 1), projected sales and profits for the first four years of operation are summarized below:
Year Sales($) Profits($) Profit/Sales(%)
1 200,000,000 0 0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
4 10,000,000,000 9,000,000,000 90.0
According to alternative 2), there are no actual projected sales and profits for the first three years of operation. Year four is the same as above. According to alternative 3), there are no projected sales or profits for the first five years.
Currently, there are no competitors for any of these inventions. Once public incredulity is overcome by demonstration, the devices should have huge market potential.
The size of the electricity generating market is essentially enormous. It would be up to 50 percent of electric generation world-wide eventually. That’s probably over a trillion dollars.
A self-powered high-speed locomotive powered by an electrino fusion power reactor would need to be at least 85 feet long.
Inventor: Gordon L. Ziegler, Lacey, Washington, USA
padrak.com/vesperman “Locomotive Power Sources”
High-Voltage Injection of Rain Water into Cold Fog
Many prototype systems exist today which efficiently convert potential energy into useful work. An example of such a system is the “Cold Fog” discovery of Dr. Peter Graneau of Northwestern University. Dr. Graneau’s system converts chemical bond energy into kinetic energy by injecting rain water with a high voltage discharge of 39.8 joules. Normal rain water subjected to this treatment becomes a cold fog which loses approximately 31.2 joules of low-grade heat and a comparable amount (29.2 joules) in the form of kinetic fog energy output. As reported in the prestigious Journal of Plasma Physics the output energy exceeds the input energy by about 100%, creating a 2:1 over-unity condition. The energy output produced by this system can be captured and harnessed to drive a motorized conversion system.
Capacitive step-down Transformer
The Capacitive step-down Transformer is a simpler, cheaper, lighter, smaller, nearly 100% efficient alternative to inductive transformers. Capacitive step-down Transformers do not have inductive, noise, heat and sound losses of inductive transformers.
Capacitive step-down Transformers can be used anywhere that is stepping down high voltages, low amperes into lower voltages, higher amperes – industry, commercial, residential and appliances. Not using Capacitive step-down Transformers has resulted in lower efficiency of transmission and distribution with enormous waste of electricity.
Capacitive Power Supplies are inherently capacitive amperage limiting. So therefore short circuits do not damage them. A brownout or blackout in one area of the grid will not take down any generators that are protected with CPS technology. There is no need for electronic controls or a grid infrastructure upgrade – the amperage control is automatic and instantaneous. If a solar flare blows out many inductive transformers, Capacitive step-down Transformers can be fast, effective replacements.
Capacitive step-down Transformers can also be reconfigured quickly and easily onsite to handle more or less wattage or to change voltage and amperage ratios. All applications that use step-down transformers can be converted.
Inventor: George Wiseman, Oroville, Washington, USA
Author of “Capacitive Battery Charger” eagle-research.com
Remediating Nuclear Waste with Electron-Captured Protons with Significant Net Energy Gain
This technology constitutes an enormously promising source of “free” energy. Using high-density charge cluster accelerators, it is now technologically feasible to produce 10-20 times as much energy by remediating radioactivity emissions from stockpiles of nuclear waste products as they originally produced. As a result of the patented work of Kenneth Shoulders, S-X Jin, Dr. Hal Puthoff, Prof. Illyanuch, Prof. Mesyats, and others, this new low-velocity method for remediating nuclear waste with electron-captured protons has been demonstrated in laboratory tests to generate substantially more energy [in the form of photons as light and electrons as heat] than is required to power the treatment apparatus itself.
The technique produces electron clusters with energy densities equivalent to 25,000 degrees Celsius upon impact with a target material, while consuming only 20 microjoules to produce the effect. The electron clusters travel at no more than 10% light speed and have been shown to penetrate any substance with a high degree of precision. Using a deuterium-loaded palladium foil, bombardment areas demonstrate transmutation into silicon, calcium, magnesium and lithium. Jin’s paper describes how the high-density electron clusters achieve impact results similar to those produced by high-velocity ion accelerators, including penetration of the nucleus, with 1000 times less power. The new physics of like-charges clustering in bundles under low power conditions opens a wide range of possible applications including micro-thrusters for space craft maneuvering. The over-unity conversion efficiency of these systems is currently estimated to be at least nine to one.
Plasma Biomass Gasification
Examples of such systems can be found in the processes developed by Dr. David Wallman [US 5,417,817], Dr. Ruggero Santilli, Dr. Randall Mills [US 6,024,935], and others. What these technologies have in common is that they operate by producing a variety of combustible gases from a wide variety of municipal waste, biomass waste, sewage and other materials containing high concentrations of hydrocarbons. Each of these systems produces substantially more energy content in the collected gases than is required to drive the carbon-arc filaments which operationalize them. The amount of carbon dioxide generated by the combustion of the gases derived from these processes is precisely the same as they absorbed while the materials were originally being formed.
Contrast this with burning fossil fuels (diesel, gasoline, oil, natural gas) which resurrect old buried carbon and add it to the atmosphere. The combustion of gases produced by biomass processing is usually characterized as follows: It requires 3300 BTU to produce 250 liters per hour of COH2 (8.5 cubic feet/hour). With a heating value of over 500 BTU per cubic feet, the COH2 output energy exceeds 4,000 BTU, often approaching 5,000 BTU in high efficiency designs. Accordingly, the biomass gasification process operates at an over-unity efficiency of between 125%-150%. This process is a largely untapped resource. Millions of gallons of farm-produced liquid biomass is going to waste, as is the energy potential represented by the COH2 which could be produced from municipal sewage and waste water systems.
Plasma biomass gasification is not a trivial energy source. The Republic of South Africa does not import a single drop of petroleum to support its transportation requirements. Instead, 100% of its diesel fuel and gasoline is produced by two plants which operate on these principles.
Thin-Film Electrolytic Cells
A number of seasoned technology integrators have developed thin-film energy storage technologies which hold considerable promise. Dr. George Miley, Dr. Robert Hockaday and others have developed thin film technologies with energy densities exceeding 250-400 watt hours per kilogram. Dr. Miley’s invention is illustrative. Using a flowing pack-bed type electrolytic cell with 1-molar LiSO4 in light water, 1mm plastic beads with a very thin [500-1,000 angstrom] film of metal [nickel, palladium, titanium] are employed. A special sputtering technique is used to spray the metals onto the surface of the beads. With 2-3 volts of electrical power and 1.5 milliamperes of current, the single film experiments have shown the material to produce more than 10 times as much output power as input. The input power is no more than 0.01 watts while .5 watt of heat is produced. It is likely that the physics involved in this reaction involve the release of energy as a by-product of nuclear transmutation. Dr. Miley has written, “The key finding from these studies has been the observation of a large array of “new” elements (i.e., different from the original bead coating), many with significant deviations from natural isotopic compositions, after the run.
Great care has been made to ensure that these elements are distinguished from isotopic impurities by use of a “clean cell” with high purity components and electrolytes, in addition to the pre-and post-run analyses. Even low-energy radiation was detected from the bead days after each experiment. Applications to space power, providing a 1-kilowatt cell with only 500 cubic centimeters of active electrode is predicted.” Note that this particular invention, with its large over-unity energy yield, was awarded a NERI grant by the DOE. At the insistent urging of the American Physical Society and representatives from MIT and other universities whose laboratories are currently engaged in high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor research, Secretary Richardson eventually withdrew the grant.
The tangle-footed Department of Energy actively discourages the development of new sources of energy, presumably to protect the oil, uranium and coal companies. The U.S. Patent Office has unfairly classified secret over 5000 energy patents. Luckless energy inventors then risk 20 years in prison if they work on, sell, or publicize their energy invention – often created at great personal sacrifice.
Orgone Energy Motor
In the mid 1930s Wilhelm Reich, MD, began noticing an energetic connection that is shared by all living beings and had the clarity of mind to not dismiss the observation as unimportant. Dr. Reich called this energy “orgone” and worked for decades demonstrating its laws and studying its various manifestations.
Dr. Reich in 1948 got a “synchro” type of electrical spinner motor to run from both an orgone energy accumulator and an orgone-charged high-vacuum tube. James DeMeo and Nicholas Reiter have each written an article on the orgone energy motor construction and use, with eyewitness quotes and many construction details. DeMeo has also published a third article on the subject of electrostatic motors, which are powered by sources bearing some resemblance to what Reich used in conjunction with the orgone accumulator.
James DeMeo’s “Orgone Energy Accumulator Handbook” has on its cover a spectacular photograph of an astronaut on the moon with a blue halo around his spacesuit (http://www.amazon.com/Orgone-Accumulator-Handbook-Construction-Experimental/dp/0962185507/ref=sr_1_3?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1327935772&sr=1-3). The astronaut’s blue halo is thought to be a visible manifestation of orgone energy.
(Sources: Emails from James DeMeo, http://www.proliberty.com/observer/20030310.htm,
http://www.orgonelab.org/cgi-bin/shop.pl/page=xpulse.htm, http://www.orgonelab.org/cart/xpulse.htm, and http://pw1.netcom.com/~rogermw/Reich/orgone motors.html.)
Joe’s Orgone Energy Cell
The Joe’s orgone energy cell basically comprises of two metal containers, one inside the other. Both containers are filled with specially charged and cleaned water with the inner container perforated to allow water to freely move between the inside and outside of the inner container. The outside container is electrically connected to the anode of a battery, and the inner container connected to the battery’s cathode. The outside container is closed except for an orifice to which a thin pipe is attached. The other end of the pipe is attached to the outside housing of the carburetor of a gasoline engine. Gas/energy is transferred to the carburetor through the pipe. The entire cell including the pipe must be electrically insulated from the engine.
Various designs and shapes of both containers have been experimentally built. The original and simplest comprised of both containers as long pipes with the inner pipe, which was perforated, inside the outer pipe.
At least fourteen vehicles in Australia have been fitted with different versions of Joe’s energy cells to be driven without fuel nor battery charging. The engine, radiator and exhaust pipe stays cold enough to freeze water – warranting replacing water in the block with transmission fluid. The timing does have to be advanced between 25 and 80 degrees, depending on the type of engine, to allow the engine to run smoothly. The engine’s power doubles over that when petrol-fueled.
The Joe’s energy cell is not explainable using conventional mainstream physics. It is not even known if the process inside the cylinders is implosion, explosion, or both. No gasoline is mixed with air inside the carburetor. It appears that zero-point energy is somehow drawn from the ether and converts the air entering the cylinders into some kind of fuel. The inventor claims the process increases the frequency and energy of the air.
For converting existing gasoline-powered vehicles into self-powered vehicles which don’t require fuel nor battery charging from a local electric utility, adding the Joe’s energy cell seems to offer by far the easiest modification. Nearly the entire engine is left alone. A separate heater would have to be provided since the engine runs cold. The vehicle will not rust, and paint will not oxidize.
Guy McCarthy, firstname.lastname@example.org, has provided the following insightful analysis of the Joe’s energy cell from a biodynamics perspective at http://web.archive.org/web/20060627183223/http://www.twelvestar.com/Sourceworks/Joe%20Cell.html:
[0.1] The “Joe Cell” (described in NEXUS magazine, Aug-Sep ’98, pp. 43-46) is an electrical device attached to the carburetor of an ordinary automobile engine which allegedly enables it to run for extended periods with the fuel line disconnected.
[0.2] Biodynamics is a science of natural forces and agriculture inspired by the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner. It pre-dates “Organics” as the original alternative to chemical/industrial agriculture. Biodynamics has achieved limited recognition in the United States and Canada, but is widely practiced in Europe, New Zealand, and Australia.
[1.0] The Joe cell uses water as a storage medium, which, when charged above a certain threshold, collects additional energy as needed by the engine. The initial charge is not depleted as the engine runs, but will dissipate under certain conditions. This matches a key attribute of the biodynamic ether, which attracts more ether to itself once the local concentration reaches a certain threshold. Without adequate boundaries (or storage conditions) the etheric charge build-up will dissipate.
[2.0] The motive reaction in the engine seems to be “implosion”, since the ignition timing must be advanced so far into the compression stroke. (Note that 80 degrees is nearly 2/3 of a typical compression cycle, which totals about 135 degrees in a 4-stroke engine.) Implosion may be considered equivalent to “a sudden condensation of the ether” which is also thought to be the motive reaction that creates lightning and thunder in the atmosphere. According to biodynamic researchers, condensation is a state change from a more rarefied ether into a less rarified one, releasing energy in the process.
[2.1] Biodynamics deals with four states of ether which are equivalent to the four elements intuited by ancient philosophers:
Warmth Ether corresponds to the Fire element
Light Ether corresponds to the Air element
Tone Ether (or “Chemical Ether”) corresponds to the Water element
Life Ether corresponds to the Earth element
[2.2] In the physical world, substance tends to flow from a high potential to a low potential. This is what the concept of “entropy” and the Second Law of Thermodynamics are based on. But in the etheric world of living energies, the inverse is true. Ether is naturally attracted to itself and flows from low potential to high potential. This is why living organisms continue to draw nutrients and life forces into themselves while the rest of the world is supposedly running down. Ether penetrates substance, and substance influences ether. This dynamic interplay is essential to life on the physical plane.
[2.3] Under favorable conditions, the following etheric condensations will occur:
Warmth Ether –> Light Ether, releasing energy as lightning
Light Ether –> Tone Ether, releasing energy as thunder
Tone Ether –> Life Ether, releasing energy as biological manifestation
[2.4] Recall that lightning and thunder sometimes occur independently of each other (as in “heat lightning” and “rolling thunder”), while at other times they are closely linked. Clearly any reasonable explanation for these phenomena must allow for both cases. The common notion that lightning and thunder are caused by static discharge between air masses is clearly untenable. A buildup of static charge in such magnitudes could only occur under extremely dry conditions; the typical thunderstorm is certainly not dry.
[2.5] The biodynamic researcher points to a well-defined cumulus cloud in mid-summer as the ideal collector of etheric energy. Hour by hour it grows, drawing abundant warmth ether from the atmosphere into itself as well as particles of dust and moisture. The cloud builds itself taller and taller – its boundaries sharply distinct from the rest of the sky. Eventually the cloud becomes saturated – turning darker and forming a mighty thunderhead. At this point, anyone who is familiar with weather patterns in open country is headed for shelter. They know that a violent thunderstorm could be unleashed at any moment.
[2.6] Just a few months ago the author observed such a phenomena in central Maryland. The top of the cloud was puffy and brilliant white, illuminated by the late afternoon sun. In contrast, the bottom was flat and dark, laden with moisture. Great bolts of lightning began to crackle about its upper regions. The air felt clear and energized while all around trees were bending and twisting in sudden gusts of wind. When the storm finally broke it was both fearsome and beautiful, a mighty discharge of lightning, thunder, and rain.
[2.7] We can surmise that the Joe cell becomes highly charged with etheric energy, and that this charge is transferred through the carburetor to the air entering each cylinder. As the compression stroke begins the volume of air is compressed, causing a further concentration of etheric charge. Soon the air becomes saturated with ether. At this point conditions in the cylinder are similar to those within the thunderhead. The ignition spark, far advanced into the compression stroke, serves to catalyze a condensation reaction of the compressed ether. This sudden change of state causes the air mixture to contract sharply, generating power through the remainder of the compression stroke. Therefore the air mixture in each cylinder undergoes a structural change, not a chemical one, and the flywheel is driven by *suction* rather than combustion. With the exception of small amounts of vapor from engine oil and perhaps trace elements from the engine and muffler, the exhaust should be of substantially the same quality as the air intake.
[2.8] Since warmth ether is the most rarefied ether, condensation will have the effect of reducing or consuming warmth. Therefore implosion is a cool process, which tends to absorb heat rather than release it. This matches observations of the Joe cell in which the engine runs cold. Unlike combustion, implosion is a “living” process, and as such produces no waste heat or by-products.
[3.0] All three styles of Joe cell are based on concentric, insulated cylinders. This is similar to the classic “orgone accumulator” discovered by Wilhelm Reich. Reich found that metals tended to conduct ether while organic materials tended to absorb it. By layering the two types of materials together, Reich caused a directional flow of ether to occur. The orgone accumulator was a six-sided box constructed with alternating layers of metal and non-metallic materials.
[3.1] The inclusion of a 1.5-volt battery to maintain the charged condition (and a 12-volt battery to create it) is an interesting variation on the orgone accumulator design. There is precedent for this idea in electrogravity documentation that has become available in recent years. (See the USAF report “Electrogravitic Systems” that was released in 1995 as well as patents by T. Townsend Brown.) The basic idea is that a charged condenser exhibits a tendency to move towards its positive terminal. This is thought to result from a net movement of ether in the opposite direction (from positive to negative). Therefore a static electric charge stimulates a directional flow of ether.
[3.2] The Joe cell design implies a net movement of ether from positive to negatively charged terminals (i.e. towards the center of the cell and towards the engine).
[4.0] The transfer of energy to the carburetor is accomplished by several different conductors including plastic, copper, aluminum and rubber tubing. The common material in all of these configurations is the *air* inside the tubing. This is consistent with the biodynamic view that oxygen is an excellent carrier of etheric forces. (Fertile soils are said to contain 50% air for just this reason.) The metallic carburetor housing would conduct the etheric energy to its interior surfaces, where incoming air would absorb it and carry it into the cylinders.
[5.0] In conclusion, the Joe cell offers a compelling view of how ordinary combustion engines might be modified to run on natural etheric energy. This could be an important direction for future research. Validation of the concept could be approached in three phases:
[5.1] Collecting a high concentration of etheric charge. For some ideas on how to accomplish this, see “Geometric Energy Fields” at http://web.archive.org/web/20060610195423/http://www.twelvestar.com/Sourceworks/Geometric%20Energy%20Fields.html which includes specific instructions for building resonant etheric devices.
[5.2] Stimulating a sudden condensation of ether by means of electric spark and measuring the implosion effect in a pressurized container.
[5.3] Achieving reproducible evidence of successive implosion events within a small engine mounted for laboratory testing.
For a related discussion, see the “Etheric Weather Engineering” chapter in the compilation of “Advanced Technologies for Foreign Resort Project” in http://www.padrak.com/vesperman. Also see “Torsion Field Physics and Torsion Field Communications”, again in http://www.padrak.com/vesperman.
Moe-Joe Orgone Energy Cell
The Moe-Joe orgone energy cell is a possibly more powerful redesign by Moshe Daniel Block, Lachine, Quebec, Canada, http://www.moe-joe-cell.com, of the original Joe’s energy cell. The Moe-Joe orgone energy cell comprises of four concentric thin spherical stainless steel shells – 5, 4, 3, and 2 inches in diameter. The ball is filled with specially charged water and then sealed. Holes allow the special water to circulate between the inner shells.
When installed in a vehicle, electrodes at the cell’s north and south poles are respectively wired to the battery’s positive post and engine ground. One end of the flexible orgone energy transfer tube (we used dishwasher tubing) is clamped over a bolt sticking out at about 30 degrees off the north pole. The engine’s white plastic L-shaped positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) valve intake is replaced with a white plastic T-shaped PCV intake. The other end of the orgone energy transfer tube is clamped over the new end of the now T-shaped PCV intake.
Orgone energy is accumulated within the Moe-Joe cell and guided by the tube into the engine via its PCV intake. As the engine draws orgone energy, the Moe-Joe orgone energy cell instantly replenishes its accumulated orgone energy by drawing additional energy from the universal orgone energy field.
The Moe-Joe cell does not generate hydrogen nor Brown’s gas. A cell needs to be topped off with only maybe a cup of specially charged water about once or twice a month, depending on how the car is driven. The charged water itself does NOT enter the engine. It is orgone energy that significantly adds power to the engine – possibly as much as doubling its power.
Exactly how universal orgone energy replaces some of an engine’s gasoline consumption is a subject of scientific debate. One theory is implosion of orgone energy which enables the engine to run cooler. The above Joe’s orgone energy cell chapter offers a detailed explanation of Moe-Joe orgone energy cell theory.
In spring 2008 a Moe-Joe cell, operating as an orgone energy accumulator, was installed in a 1993 Saturn. Orgone energy was transferred from the cell through a section of dishwasher tube into the engine via its PCV valve intake. The Saturn’s carefully measured mileage jumped from 30 MPG to 47 MPG. Smog checks before and after installation of the ball measured a 90% reduction of exhaust pollutants.
A second cell was also installed in a non-computerized 1968 Dodge Charger with similarly positive results. It was fun driving the Charger as it performed like it had a 500-horsepower engine.
The car noticeably feels lighter as well as more powerful due to a possible anti-gravity effect. When unpacked and assembled without even having been filled with specially charged water, a Moe-Joe cell when picked up will sometimes feel light as an empty beer can. When picked up at other times it sometimes will feel noticeably heavier. The Charger has a decidedly different feel of increased speed when it rounds a curve in the road.
Shortly after the ball was installed in the Charger, Gary Vesperman was standing behind the Charger. His mechanic friend John Martens was tinkering under the hood. When John moved the throttle to a high power level, Gary’s pants were immediately covered with black soot. Orgone energy was cleaning out the engine’s cylinders.
The Charger’s engine normally idles at about 1000 RPM. John has seen it idle as slow as around 50 RPM. No normal gasoline engine on the planet can idle that slow.
Another weird phenomenon: Sometimes the Charger’s engine was emitting a strange whitish “fog” out of the oil intake tube, exhaust, air filter, and other orifices. Putting one’s hand into the “fog”, it doesn’t feel at all like the hot steam that boils out of a hot uncapped radiator.
The Moe-Joe cell is not compatible with more modern cars and trucks because of the engine computer. What happens is the fuel-air mixture becomes unusually lean. The computer is programmed to then add more fuel to the fuel injectors to bring the fuel-air mixture back up to standard. An electronic circuit has to be added to modify the oxygen sensor signal in order to fool the computer.
To establish a business selling Moe-Joe orgone energy cells in Nevada, the first step would be to hire an attorney to obtain from the Nevada Department of Motor Vehicles an official letter certifying that it is legal to install Moe-Joe orgone energy cells in Nevada-registered vehicles.
Estimated cost – $5,000.
If legal, the second step would be to purchase a pre-computer era car or truck that is in decent shape. After purchase, but before installing a Moe-Joe orgone energy cell, the vehicle’s emission should be measured at a smog station. The vehicle’s gasoline per mile consumption should also be measured over at least 150 miles. The recommended test route is on the old highway southwest of Las Vegas parallel to I-15.
After installation of a cell, the vehicle’s emission should be measured again at the same smog station. The vehicle is driven again over the exact same route as before using the same gasoline fueling pump. Estimated cost of vehicle and test drives – $5,000.
According to Moe-Joe Cell Car Kit, i.e., http://www.nutopia.cc/index.php, the cost of a Moe-Joe orgone energy cell with one set of spacers, one bismuth core, one aluminum hose connector, and one 1-meter transfer hose with spring totals $348. Assume an estimated additional shipping cost of $10. A mechanic experienced with installing Moe-Joe orgone energy cells could likely install a cell in most cars and trucks in approximately one hour.
The estimated cost of purchasing and installing one Moe-Joe orgone energy cell in a demonstration vehicle, including mechanic training, is $600.
Gary Vesperman has an electronic contraption for specially charging and filtering the water with which to fill a Moe-Joe orgone energy cell. Electrically charging bottled spring water results in brown scum floating on top of the water which has to be filtered several times before a clear liquid similar in color to urine is obtained. It currently takes a couple of hours to charge and filter enough water to fill a one-quart bottle. He is willing to make and sell one-quart bottles of special water for $50 each. Hopefully production efficiencies can be improved such as experimenting with charging and filtering distilled water rather than bottled spring water.
Once a demonstration vehicle’s performance with and without the Moe-Joe orgone energy cell has been certified, it is suggested that the vehicle be displayed at the numerous car shows that are held in the Las Vegas area. Orders could be taken at these shows for Moe-Joe orgone energy cells to be installed ONLY on pre-computer cars and trucks.
It is anticipated that the owners will be so pleased with the enhanced performance of their orgone energy-powered pre-computer cars and trucks that they will place informal requests for Moe-Joe orgone energy cells to be installed in their more modern computerized cars and trucks. Favorable market demand would encourage the expensive development of an electronic circuit for making the cells compatible with engine computers. Development and validation of a commercial-grade circuit with appropriate packaging and instructions is conservatively estimated to cost tens of thousands of dollars.
Arrangements with an automotive repair shop to install Moe-Joe orgone energy cell could be made. Or, a mechanic could be hired and equipped to do nothing but install and service Moe-Joe orgone energy cells.
Standalone gasoline or diesel-fueled electricity generators don’t seem to have computers. It seems reasonable to anticipate a large market (farms, e.g.) for orgone energy-fueled generators. Standalone non-computerized diesel and gasoline-fueled electricity generators would consume much less fuel with a Moe-Joe orgone energy cell.
Ukrainian Capacitor-Like Battery
The I. N. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, Kiev, Ukraine, has invented an entirely new type of battery. Emtech LTD., Mississauga, Ontario is commercializing the battery and has applied for 11 patents. A set of conventional lead-acid batteries can propel a small electric car for 100 miles or so, require several hours to recharge, and weigh 1000 lb. An equivalent set of Ukrainian batteries is expected to weigh approximately 200 lb., provide a much greater range of up to possibly 200-300 miles, require 15 to 30 minutes to recharge, and maintain full voltage until 94% discharge. The Ukrainian battery operates well in the temperature range of -40 to +60 degrees centigrade.
A Ukrainian battery stores the charges in crystalline layers of a sheet-like material similar in appearance to mica. Due to nonlinear quantum mechanic effects, the electrical characteristic of each crystalline layer is that of a capacitor as thin as one molecule. Since capacitance is inversely proportional to thickness of the separation between layers, the practical consequence of the Ukrainian battery is to electrically function in a manner similar to that of a giant capacitor.
A side benefit of the Ukrainian batteries is that they are made only of proprietary materials which are environmentally friendly, plentiful, and inexpensive. (Dated 1993; claims currently are not considered credible. Emtech LTD, which had the commercialization license, recently went bankrupt. Nu Omnicomm Technologies, Inc., of Salt Lake City, which has close ties to the I. N. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, may be able to revive the Ukrainian battery. David Yurth probably could provide more information.)
Torsion Field Energy Applications
A sizable list of attributes has been experimentally identified which demonstrates that the torsion field operates holographically, without regard to time and distance. Its operations are characterized by a variety of behaviors which have been described conceptually, experimentally and mathematically as functions of spin polarity, angular momentum and weighted waveform vector velocities.
In August 1999, Dr. Myron Evans, Dr. Lawrence Crowell and a team of sixteen other physicists, engineers and mathematicians published the first reformulation of Maxwell’s field equations in over a hundred years . Contained in their extraordinary work are reformulations of the entire family of formulas which have been developed over the past 100 years to describe the attributes, functions and dynamics which characterize electromagnetic fields. Their seminal work demonstrates that the functions and attributes of the five primary fields, including those of the torsion field, can be expressed in terms of parallel geometricized equations .
A careful analysis of the basic formulas developed by Akimov , Schwartz , Anastasovski , Trefilov , Reed , Santilli and others, is extremely revealing – the most stunning thing about them is the discovery that the characteristics of all four primary fields and the 5th field [which we have called the torsion field] appear to be completely accommodated by the set of functions which comprise spin polarity in linear, longitudinal and transverse wave functions, and angular momentum at both the quantum and macrocosmic level. While there is still much work to be done here, it seems more than coincidental that these attributes are precisely what cause the torsion field to operate as it does. The formulas referred to include Einstein’s equations, the Young-Mills equations and Geisenberg’s equations.
It has been shown that information is conveyed via the torsion field at a rate which is at least 109 times faster than the speed of light. This revelation, which is largely due to the ground breaking work of Russian scientist V.A. Dubrovsky up to 1985, has now been confirmed by at least six other laboratories in the former Soviet states, by Prof. Dr. Guenter Nimtz and his colleagues at Cologne University , and Lijun Wang, Alexander Kuzmich and Arthur Dogariu of the NEC Institute . The group velocity of torsion waves has also independently been shown to be at least 109 times the speed of light.
The litmus test regarding this issue is found in the recent award by NASA of a contract to develop a torsion field communications system. The award was announced on August 19, 1999, under the title, NASA Glenn Announces Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Selections.
A practical set of experiments which reveal just how important this concept is has been conducted both here and in the former Soviet states. Here in the United States, Bill Ramsay describes an experiment in which Greg Hodowanec was able to record the occurrence of a solar flare more than eight and a half minutes before it was confirmed by NOAA, when the photons and particles liberated by the event entered the earth’s atmosphere. He was also able to measure the magnitude of the event, as it occurred .
Nick Anthony Fiorenza and Alistair Couper have both reported on the use of gravimetric devices to record the actual transit locations of the planet Pluto, orders of magnitude faster than was possible using measurements based on conventional light wave sensing devices. The devices used by Fiorenza and Couper have been employed by Russian astronomers to determine the precise real-time locations of stellar formations and planets . The results of their work bears heavily on the assumption that information contained in any single location in the Cosmos can be instantaneously obtained at any other remote location, regardless of the extent to which events are separated by time, space or distance. This assumes the means of observation are engineered to comport with torsion field dynamics rather than relying on the data transfer rates associated with radio frequency emissions [light].
We have reason to believe, based on the ground breaking work of V.A. Ablekov, David Bohm and Karl Pribram , that the torsion field is holographic. The combination of the features identified by their research suggests that the phenomena associated with Bohm’s Implicate Order and Pribram’s holographic model of human consciousness, which are otherwise inexplicable, can now be accommodated.
Unlike electromagnetism, where analogous charges repel and opposite charges attract, in torsion fields similar charges attract and opposite charges repulse.
As a torsion field is generated by the classical spin of a magnetic plate, we can observe and measure the precise effects of the alteration of spin state of the object or system which is encompassed by it. At the Institute for Problems of Materials Science in Kiev, scientists have for more than 25 years used torsion field generators as an essential component of the apparatus used to manufacture exceedingly exotic materials, for which we have no comparable products in the West. These include mono-molecular powdered metals, solid state energy accumulators and certain varieties of atomically engineered carbon.
Torsion field emissions are non-dissipative and are not attenuated by the interposition of mass or the effects of distance. Torsion fields cannot be screened by any known materials except aluminum, nor any known combination of materials or fields. The results of the 1986 Moscow M2 torsion wave communications experiments have been widely distributed. In this demonstration, a directional torsion field was modulated with a simple variation of the Morse code. The signal was instantaneously received at a point more than 22 kilometers distant, using a similar low-power gravimetric signal detection device. The signal was passed through steel reinforced concrete more than 50 meters thick, after having been propagated through a mountain more than 10 kilometers wide. Variations of this experiment have apparently been successfully performed in a number of other locations in the former Soviet states since that time .
The absence of loss of signal strength, referred to as attenuation, during the spread of a torsion wave group, suggests that long-distance communication may one day be possible with the use of very low transmission power and unlimited bandwidth. The fact that torsion waves are not attenuated [weakened] by any known material substances or fields suggests that we may one day be able to devise systems which are capable of communicating through water or any density of physical material . This concept also suggests that we should be able to devise communications systems capable of supporting real-time communication without regard to the vast distances of space.
Since all known substances possess a non-zero collective spin state [this means, in simple terms, that everything is always in motion at all scales], then all substances must also create and exist within their own localized torsion fields. The expanse and frequency structure of any substance is determined by its chemical composition and the expanse structure of its molecules or crystalline lattice. A clear understanding of these mechanics will enable us to commercialize energy storage devices which have energy conversion characteristics well in excess of gasoline [650 watt hours/kg].
At the Institute for Problems of Materials Science located in Kiev, Republic of Ukraine, a scientific team led by Academicians Trefilov, Tovschuk and Kovalyuk created a solid-state energy cell which produces 850-1040 watt-hours/kilogram, in laboratory prototypes. This is at least 35-50 times the energy density of any known conventional energy storage devices developed in the West. The reliability of their claims regarding this technology has been verified by INEEL, DARPA and the AMTL. A key element of their crystalline lattice deposition method relies on the effects of a torsion field beam. Scientists working at Sandia Laboratories in Los Alamos, New Mexico, have reported the successful development of a thin-film solid-state energy storage device which reportedly demonstrates energy density in the range of 250-400 watt-hours/kilogram.
It has been shown that torsion fields demonstrate persistence. This attribute is referred to in the literature as a “residual field effect.” A torsion source of a defined expanse and frequency has been consistently shown to polarize the localized region of the physical vacuum. Once the energizing space-spin source has been put in motion and a torsion field created, and then removed to another place, the space which surrounded the torsion field generator will continue to exhibit the effects of the torsion field for as long as several hours.
If we can delineate the dynamics which cause the persistence of residual field effects, we will be able to explain and harness the functional features attributed to dowsing, magnetically effected molecules of water and so on. A clear and present example of the applications made possible by this information is illustrated by the work of a team of physicians from the CIS. Using the work of V. Kronin as the basis for their treatment modality, a team of Russian physicians has been working at the laboratories of the Centers For Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia, and Baylor University Medical Research Center in Houston, Texas, for more than a year. Their project demonstrates a revolutionary new medical treatment modality which capitalizes on this attribute of torsion field mechanics, to fundamentally cure patients infected with the hepatitis-C virus.
Teams of scientists from more than 50 laboratories have shown that it is now feasible to deliberately perform a wide variety of carefully calibrated functions using torsion field devices. We can build torsion field generators of both static and radiating types. We can select, adjust and fine-tune frequencies modulated into the field with a high degree of precision. We can modulate into and retrieve data out of a torsion field, including via two dimensional spin matrices. We can operate efficiently in a variety of different modes of signal radiation. We can adjust and smooth the intensity of the S-waves and we can operate in both left and right S-wave chiral helicities. (S waves are spinor waves.)
Torsion fields can be detected, generated and switched on and off (such as in communications applications). We have demonstrated that torsion fields can be designed to interact with laser beams , to modulate light frequencies and perform other functions. Torsion fields have been demonstrated to have a specific effect on biological processes and have been shown to be generated by certain melting and solidifying materials. Torsion fields affect the oscillation of quartz crystals , affect the functional characteristics of some electronic components , and have been shown to have verifiable, measurable and predictable effects on gravity.
In practical fact, we can point to a long list of applications which could benefit from carefully planned applications engineering which recognizes the properties of torsion fields and harnesses them for practical purposes. Among these are revolutionary new propulsion systems, communications devices, long-range sensors, astrophysical monitoring and metering devices, geo-physical devices which can be calibrated to locate mineral deposits, water and subterranean structures; photographic applications which are capable of imaging the interior of virtually any substance or structure without X-rays and so on.
For more on the remarkable potential of the torsion field, see http://www.ufodigest.com/news/0809/torsion-field-print.php.
(Sources: David G. Yurth’s unpublished book “Seeing Past The Edge”; Gary Vesperman’s “Torsion Field Physics and Torsion Field Communications”, http://www.padrak.com/vesperman.)
DISCLAIMER: Inclusion of any invention or technology described in this compilation of electrical energy innovations does not in any way imply its suitability for investment of any kind. All investors contemplating any investments in these devices and technologies should first consult with a licensed financial professional. Prospective investors should exhaustively perform their own investigation of pertinent facts and allegations of facts. Investors should also ensure thorough compliance with regulations of the federal Securities and Exchange Commission and appropriate state secsecurities divisions. For more information, see http://www.zpenergy.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=1655
The New Maxwell Electrodynamic Equations: New Tools for New Technologies. A collection of 60 papers from the Alpha Foundation’s Institute for Advanced Study. Journal of New Energy, Winter (1999) ISSN: 1086-8259
L.B. Crowell, “Quantum Electrodynamics of NonAbellian Electrodynamics in a Cavity,” Journal of New Energy, Volume 4 No.2, page 70-81, (Summer 1999).
Akimov, A.E., Finogenov, V.”P Experimentainiya Proyavleniya Torsionnykh Polei i Torsionnye Tekhnologii” (“Experimental Manifestations of Torsion Fields and Torsion-Based Techniques”), Moscow: NTTs “Informatekhnika,” 1996, 68 pages, published by Sci-Tech Center “Informatekhnika.”(in Russian).
Swartz, M.R. “Generality of Optimal Operating Point Behavior in Low Energy Nuclear Systems,” Journal of New Energy, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 218-229.
Anastasovski, P.K., Benson, T.M. Quantum Mass Theory Compatible With Quantum Field Theory, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. (1995) ISBN: 1.56072-157-X.
Trefilov, A. etal I.N. Frantsevic Institute For Problems of Materials Science, Anthropos Files ref/
Reed, D. “Torsion Field Research and Implications for New Physics and Energy Technologies,” Journal of New Energy, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp 151-164 (Summer 1999).
Santilli, R., Il Grande Grido, loc.cit.
Akimov, A.E., “An Heuristic Discussion of an Issue of a Discovery of New Long Distance Interactions,” EGS-Concepts. MNTC VENT, pre-print N7A, page 63 (in Russian); Akimov, Shipov, “Torsion Fields And Their Experimental Manifestations,” Journal of New Energy, Vol. 2, No. 2, page 68, Summer 1997.
Dubrovsky, V. “Elastic Model of a Physical Vacuum,” DAN USSR, vol 282, no 1, 1985 (in Russian).
Nimtz, G. Superluminal Signal Velocity, Annalen der Physik 7, 618 (1998); see also G. Nimtz, W. Heitmann, Superluminal Photonic Tunneling and Quantum Electonics, Progress in Quantum Electronics, vol. 21, 81 (1997); see also, A. Enders, G. Nimtz, “Photonic Tunneling Experiments,” Physics Review, B 47, 9605 (1993) regular paper; see also, A. Enders, G. Nimtz, On Superluminal barrier Transversal, Journal of Physics (France),vol. 2, at pp. 1693 (1992); see also, G. Nimtz, A. Enders, H. Spieker, Photonic Tunneling Experiments: Superluminal Tunneling, Trani Workshop, 24-30 September 1992, Waves and Particles in Light and Matter. A.v.d. Merwe and A. Garuccio (eds.), Plenum Press, NY (1994).
Associated Press, Light Can Break Its Own Speed Limit…, July 20, 2000.
Bunin, V.A. “Newest Issues of Gravitation in the Light of Classical Physics,” Proceedings 4th Astro-Geological Meeting Geographical Society of AS USSR, L. 1962, page 88 (in Russian). See also V.A. Bunin, “Unitary Electra-Gravitation Equations of Mathematical Physics,” Auto-repherates of speeches in the section entitled MOIP, 1965, no 1, p 4 (in Russian).
Quantum Fields, LLC – Press Releases. Current NASA news is found at http://www.grc.nasa.gov/Doc/news.htm. On August 19, Quantum Fields, LLC, received word from NASA that their proposal submitted to the breakthrough propulsion physics program was selected for funding. A copy of the press release follows, along with a link to a summary of the proposal.
(2) Jordan Maclay (Quantum Fields, LLC) Richland Center, WI) and MEMS Optical, Inc. (Huntsville, AL) proposed an experimental and theoretical study of quantum vacuum energy. The experiments will use micro-electromechanical devices to test force and energy effects by quantum electrodynamics.
FEASIBILITY OF COMMUNICATION USING QUANTUM CORRELATIONS
For all space missions, it is imperative to have reliable communication links to transmit data, computer codes, or other information. The current electromagnetic communications technologies (including laser, RF, X band, S. band) do not scale well as the mission distance increases. With current methods, the power, weight, cost and complexity increase rapidly with distance, while the transmission reliability decreases. We propose to explore the possibility of a revolutionary approach to communications based on recent theoretical and experimental developments in quantum physics, in particular based on quantum correlations between entangled atoms or ions (EPR pairs). Recent experiments have verified the existence of quantum correlations between entangled photons, in which the polarization measurement of one photon is always correlated with the measured polarization of another, distant photon (this is a specific reference to the work of Nicolas Gisin and his team at CERN, Geneva). Theory indicates it is not possible to use standard quantum mechanical measurements on entangled systems, such as polarization correlations of photons, for communications. Current theory restricts but may not deny the possibility of using quantum mechanical correlations in small movements or adiabatic perturbations of entangled atoms as a communication means. Further, if non-linear modifications to quantum mechanics suggested by Nobel Laureate S. Weinberg are present, then EPR communications is clearly allowed. If experiment verified that the use of EPR pairs was viable, it should be possible to develop an almost ideal communications system, a compact, low weight, communication architecture in which no broadcast power or antenna is required, no environmental noise is present, the signal does not fall off as the inverse square of the distance, and high data rates with complete security are possible. The purpose of this effort is to investigate the possibility of using quantum correlations in the adiabatic movements of atoms as a means of communication, to perform an initial theoretical feasibility analysis, identifying the key issues with such an approach, and to propose an experiment to resolve some of the fundamental questions.
Ramsay, B. “Generic Gravity Wave/ Scalar Detector,” Journal of New Energy, Proceedings of the 5th INE Symposium, Vol.4, No. 2, Summer 1999, pp 148-150.
Hodowanec, G. Hodowanec’s Rhysmonic Cosmology, a collection of notes, papers and articles authored by G. Hodowanec, reflecting some of the theoretical and experimental findings, as well as the 1985 monograph Rhysmonic Cosmology. Available c/o B. Ramsay Publisher, 563 29 ¼ Road #3, Grand Junction, Colo, 81504, (970)241-5863. See also Bill Ramsay, “Fixed Rate Scanning, Enigma or Research Tool?”, unpublished paper August 1997. See also, Bill Ramsay, “Exploring the Aethers: Adventures Inspired by Hodowanec’s Discoveries,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Energy, Denver, Colorado, May 12-15, 1994
Fiorenza, Nick Anthony “Gravitational Wave and Planetary Correspondence,” Argo Navis, Inc., 288 Bluff St. Suite 474, Boulder, Colorado, 80301, 1994. See also Alastair, “Measuring Gravity,” 181 Star Route, Hana, Hawaii, 96713. See also email@example.com .
Matveyenko, L.I. “Visible Superlight Speeds of Components Scattering Extra-Galactic Objects,”UPhN, 1989, vol. 140, no. 3, p 469 (in Russian).
Hameroff, S. etal, ”Tubulin Dimers” ref/
Akimov, Shipov et al, “Torsion Fields And Their Experimental Manifestations,” Journal of New Energy, vol 2, no 2, page 72, 1997.
Yurth, David. The Anthropos Files loc. cit.
Akimov, Shipov et al, “Torsion Fields And Their Experimental Manifestations,” Journal of New Energy, vol 2, no 2, page 74, 1997.
Akimov, A.E.”Torsion Communications of the Third Millennium,” Papers of the International Conference “Modern Telecommunication Technologies,” Moscow, May 1995 (Russian). See also A. E. Akimov, G.I. Shipov, “Torsion Fields and Their Experimental Manifestations, Journal of New Energy, Vol. 2 No 2. 1997 @ page 78.
Akimov, Shipov et al, “Torsion Fields And Their Experimental Manifestations,” Journal of New Energy, Vol. 2, No. 2, page 72, 1997.G.
Convegno Internazionale: “Quale Fisca per 2000?” Bologna, 1991. See also D. Yurth, Anthropos Files, ibid.
David Yurth, The Anthropos Files, loc. cit. IPMS has also perfected the use of a specially modulated torsion field device to manufacture mono-molecular powders of strategic metals. Using this revolutionary manufacturing method, metals can be stored in conventional glass containers without involuntarily generating static electricity.
Akimov, A.E., Binghi, V. “Homeopathy, Quantum Physics and Torsion Fields,” Proceedings of the Congress of the International Homeopathic Association, Kiev, Sept. 25-29, 1991, page 143 (in Russian). See also V. Binghi, “Induction of Metastable States of Water within the Framework of Torsion Field Concepts,” CISE VENT, 1991, preprint no 3, page 35. (in Russian).
Harvalik, Z.V. The American Dowser, 1973, vol 13, no 3, page 85, 87. See also D. Chadwic, L. Jensen, Utah Water Research Lab., College of Engineering, Utah State Univ., Logan, 1971, page 120. See also S.W. Tromp, “Experiments on the Possible Relationship Between Soil Resisting and Dowsing Zones,” Oegatgeest, 1956.
The frequency signature of the hepatitis-C virus was mapped using infra-red spectrometry, a specially designed scalar interferometer and MRI technologies. The complex waveform which is mutually exclusive to the hepatitis-C virus was then fed into a desktop computer and converted to a waveform which was its phase conjugated opposite. The resulting waveform information was then fed to a torsion field generator which was used to irradiate a .5% molal solution of NaCl (Ringer’s) for a period of 30 minutes. The ionic salt solution emitted a phase conjugated signal when fed into the patient’s system. The solution was infiltrated into the vascular system of 15 patients diagnosed with advanced cases of hepatitis-C. After 30 days of three-times-per-week treatment, 14 of the 15 patients were diagnosed as being completely free of any sign of infection. The 15th patient died during treatment from complications arising from an extremely advanced, chronic case of the disease. The technology is now being tested under double blind protocols by Dr. Robert Pennington and virologists at the Baylor University Medical Center.
Sciama, D.W. “The Physical Structure of General Relativity,” Rev. Mod. Phys., 1964, no 36, page 463. See also D. Ivanenko, P. Pronin, G. Sardanashvilli, Calibrating Gravitation Theory, BGU Publ., Moscow, 1985, page 143 (in Russian). See also Ya Zeldovich, “Interpretation of Electrodynamics as Consequences of Quantum Theory,” Pisma v. ShETF., 1967, vol6 no 10, page 922 (in Russian). See also A. Sakharov, Vacuum Quantum Fluctuation in Curved Space and the Gravitation Theory, DAN, 1967, no 1, page 70 (in Russian). See also V. Bellin et al, “On Quantum Gravitation Effects in Isotrope Universe,” ZhETF, vol 6, 1980, page 2082 (in Russian).
Akimov, A.E., Finogenov, V.P. “Experimentainiya Proyavleniya Torsionnykh Polei i Torsionnye Tekhnologii” (Experimental Manifestations of Torsion Fields and Torsion-Based Techniques), Moscow: NTTs “Informatekhnika,” 1996, 68 pages, published by Sci-Tech Center “Informatekhnika.”(in Russian).
Ivanenko, D., Pronin, P., Sardanashvilli, G. “Calibrating Gravitation Theory,” BGU Publ., Moscow, 1985, page 143 (in Russian).
Fox, H., Ramsay, B. “The Super-Luminal Velocity of Gravity Waves,” Trenergy, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1998, 4 pages with references.
Obukov, Yu., Pronin, P., Yakushin, I. “On the Experimental Estimations of the Axial Torsion Mass and Coupling Constants,” in the press (in Russian). See also Ch. Imbert, “Calculation and Experimental Proof of the Transverse Shift Induced by a Total Internal Reflection of a Circularly Polarized Light Beam,” Phys. Rev. D, 1972, vol 5, no 4, page 787 (in Russian). See also “Phantom DNA Effect” as defined by V. Poponin, loc.cit.
Zhvirblis, V.E. “Playing Bubliks,” Chemistry and Life, no 5, 1995, pages 10-15. See also V.A. Sokolova, “Investigation of the Plant’s Response to the Action of Torsion Radiation,” preprint no 48, Moscow: VENT, 1994, 32 pages. See also V.F. Panov, B.V. Testov, A.V. Klyuev, T.D. Afonina, “”Effect of Torsion Radiation on Mammals Organism,” in: Reports Theses, PERM State Medical Academy, Scientific Session of 1997, PERM, (Russia), thesis no 159. See also 
Kichigin, V.I., Klyuev, A.V., Kurapov, S.A., Panov, V.F.,. Khaldeev, G.V., Borisova, T.F. “Torsion Fields and Electrochemical Processes at Metal-Electrolyte Interface,” Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 2, 1996, pages 27-31. See also V.P. Mayboroda, A.E. Akimov, G.A. Maximova, V.Y. Tarasenko, V.K. Shkholniy, “Influence of the Torsion Fields in Tin Melt,” MNTP, VENT, pre-print no 49, Moscow: 1994, 13 pages (in Russian). See also V.P. Mayboroda, A.E. Akimov, G.A. Maximova, V.Y. Tarasenko, V.K. Shkholniy, N.G. Palaguta, G.M. Moltchanovskaya, “Structure and Properties of Copper Inherited From a Melt After Applying to it a Torsion Emission,” MNTP, VENT, pre-print no 50, Moscow: 1994, 11 pages (in Russian).
Akimov, A., Kurik, M., Tatasenko, V. “Effect of Spinor (Torsion) Field on Crystallization of Micellar Structures,” Biotekhnologiya, 1991, no 3, page 69 (in Russian). See also V. Zhitnikov, A. Kamenshchikov, V. Ponomarev, “Precision Gravity Measurements and New Types of Physical Interactions,” Gravitational and Hypothetical Interactions, ed. By Ya. Teriletsky UDN Publ., Moscow, 1989, page 3 (in Russian). See also C.I. Cheng, P. Li, K.I. Szeto, “Microscopic Detection of Spin-Dependent Long-Range Interaction,” Phys. Lett. A., 1991, n0 4-5, page 235 (in Russian).
Reed et al., “Super-Luminal Velocity of Gravity Waves,” loc.cit.
Obukhov, Yu., Pronin, P. “Physical Effects in Theory of Gravitation With Torsion,” Moscow: VINITI, 1991, page 5 (in Russian).